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# Exercise 1

Lower limit = 27.94 kg/m^2 - 4.85 kg/m^2 = 23.09 kg/m^2

Upper limit = 27.94 kg/m^2 + 4.85 kg/m^2 = 32.79 kg/m^2

Lower limit: µ - 2σ

Upper limit: µ + 2σ

Lower limit = 27.94 kg/m^2 - 2 * 4.85 kg/m^2 = 27.94 kg/m^2 - 9.7 kg/m^2 = 18.24 kg/m^2

Upper limit = 27.94 kg/m^2 + 2 * 4.85 kg/m^2 = 27.94 kg/m^2 + 9.7 kg/m^2 = 37.64 kg/m^2

Lower limit: µ - 3σ

Upper limit: µ + 3σ

Lower limit = 27.94 kg/m^2 - 3 * 4.85 kg/m^2 = 27.94 kg/m^2 - 14.55 kg/m^2 = 13.39 kg/m^2

Upper limit = 27.94 kg/m^2 + 3 * 4.85 kg/m^2 = 27.94 kg/m^2 + 14.55 kg/m^2 = 42.49 kg/m^2

So, for 99.7% of patients, their BMI lies between 13.39 kg/m^2 and 42.49 kg/m^2.

# Exercise 2

When the data is spread out normally, the median is the same as the mean. That means that the middle weight for adults in Australia is 78 kg, which is the same as the mean.

About 95% of the data falls within two standard deviations, 99.7% of the data falls within three standard deviations, and about 68% of the data falls within one standard deviation of the mean.

Lower limit

78 kg - 3 * 10 kg = 78 kg - 30 kg = 48 kg

Upper limit

78 kg + 3 * 10 kg = 78 kg + 30 kg = 108 kg

So, 99.7% of adult Australians will have weights between 48 kg and 108 kg.

# Exercise 3

X = 1.96 * 16 + 266 = 293.36

The length of the middle 95% of pregnancies falls between approximately 238.64 days and 293.36 days.

X = -1.96 * 16 + 266 = 238.64

The length of the shortest 2.5% of pregnancies is approximately 238.64 days.

X = 1.96 * 16 + 266 = 293.36

So, the length of the longest 2.5% of pregnancies is approximately 293.36 days.

# Exercise 4

The dependent variable is diabetes and proposed level and independent variable is age.

The association is as follows:-

 Correlations Sex proposed waist circumference Diabetes Betel leaf use Sex Pearson Correlation 1 .262** .007 -.082 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .901 .128 N 350 350 350 350 proposed waist circumference Pearson Correlation .262** 1 -.075 .012 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .159 .828 N 350 350 350 350 Diabetes Pearson Correlation .007 -.075 1 .060 Sig. (2-tailed) .901 .159 .261 N 350 350 350 350 Betel leaf use Pearson Correlation -.082 .012 .060 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .128 .828 .261 N 350 350 350 350 Proposed nutrition level Pearson Correlation -.093 .178** -.051 .100 Sig. (2-tailed) .081 .001 .344 .061 N 350 350 350 350 Proposed BMI Pearson Correlation .100 .255** -.097 .089 Sig. (2-tailed) .063 .000 .071 .096 N 350 350 350 350 High Blood pressure Pearson Correlation -.280** -.208** .228** .179** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .001 N 350 350 350 350

The above table reflects that the correlation is positive between the variables.

The summary statistics is as follows:-

 Statistics Age Sex Religion Occupation Family income (monthly) Education N Valid 350 350 350 350 350 350 Missing 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 29.10 1.43 1.07 4.41 9012.23 3.16 Median 28.00 1.00 1.00 6.00 7250.00 2.00 Std. Deviation 7.927 .496 .248 2.941 5966.087 2.003 Variance 62.832 .246 .062 8.650 35594197.885 4.011 Skewness 1.396 .266 3.520 .019 3.007 .461 Std. Error of Skewness .130 .130 .130 .130 .130 .130 Kurtosis 2.340 -1.940 10.454 -1.521 10.000 -1.451 Std. Error of Kurtosis .260 .260 .260 .260 .260 .260 Range 41 1 1 8 38000 5
 Statistics proposed waist circumference Diabetes Heart Disease Chronic Respiratory Disease High Blood pressure N Valid 350 350 350 350 350 Missing 0 0 0 0 0 Mean .1200 1.97 1.35 1.93 1.92 Median .0000 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 Std. Deviation .32543 .182 .479 .258 .276 Variance .106 .033 .229 .067 .076 Skewness 2.349 -5.141 .612 -3.343 -3.039 Std. Error of Skewness .130 .130 .130 .130 .130 Kurtosis 3.537 24.569 -1.635 9.225 7.280 Std. Error of Kurtosis .260 .260 .260 .260 .260 Range 1.00 1 1 1 1
 Statistics Proposed nutrition level Proposed BMI Tobacco Use Betel leaf use Body Mass Index N Valid 350 350 350 350 350 Missing 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 1.8114 1.6771 1.6286 1.9200 20.6047 Median 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 19.9948 Std. Deviation .39173 .46824 .48388 .27168 3.35219 Variance .153 .219 .234 .074 11.237 Skewness -1.599 -.761 -.534 -3.110 .840 Std. Error of Skewness .130 .130 .130 .130 .130 Kurtosis .560 -1.429 -1.724 7.714 .421 Std. Error of Kurtosis .260 .260 .260 .260 .260 Range 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 19.39

The graph of occupation is as follows:-

# Exercise 5

The compare means is as follows-

 Case Processing Summary Cases Included Excluded Total N Percent N Percent N Percent patients ID * nicotine level pre 209 100.0% 0 0.0% 209 100.0% nicotine level post * nicotine level pre 209 100.0% 0 0.0% 209 100.0% smoking status * nicotine level pre 209 100.0% 0 0.0% 209 100.0%
 Report nicotine level pre patients ID nicotine level post smoking status 35.00 Mean 1011.00 53.0000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 38.00 Mean 1013.00 56.0000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 39.60 Mean 1021.00 57.4000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 42.00 Mean 1025.00 57.5000 1.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 44.00 Mean 1032.00 59.4000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 46.50 Mean 1035.00 61.5000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 47.00 Mean 1059.00 65.5000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 49.00 Mean 1066.00 66.3000 1.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 51.00 Mean 1198.00 39.6000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 53.00 Mean 1089.00 42.0000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 56.00 Mean 1090.00 44.0000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 57.40 Mean 1106.00 46.5000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 57.50 Mean 1091.00 47.0000 2.00 N 1 1 1 Std. Deviation . . . 59.40 Mean 1140.00 49.0000 2.00 N 1 1 1

The given test is as follows:-

 Variables Entered/Removeda Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 nicotine level postb . Enter
 a. Dependent Variable: patients ID b. All requested variables entered.
 Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .080a .006 .002 60.430
 a. Predictors: (Constant), nicotine level post
 ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 4833.680 1 4833.680 1.324 .251b Residual 755926.320 207 3651.818 Total 760760.000 208
 a. Dependent Variable: patients ID b. Predictors: (Constant), nicotine level post
 Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1132.977 24.674 45.918 .000 nicotine level post -.326 .284 -.080 -1.150 .251
 a. Dependent Variable: patients ID

# Appendices

Frequency Table

 ge Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 19 9 2.6 2.6 2.6 20 24 6.9 6.9 9.4 21 7 2.0 2.0 11.4 22 32 9.1 9.1 20.6 23 16 4.6 4.6 25.1 24 17 4.9 4.9 30.0 25 43 12.3 12.3 42.3 26 17 4.9 4.9 47.1 27 9 2.6 2.6 49.7 28 25 7.1 7.1 56.9 29 9 2.6 2.6 59.4 30 29 8.3 8.3 67.7 31 8 2.3 2.3 70.0 32 21 6.0 6.0 76.0 33 1 .3 .3 76.3 34 3 .9 .9 77.1 35 28 8.0 8.0 85.1 36 2 .6 .6 85.7 37 2 .6 .6 86.3 38 8 2.3 2.3 88.6 40 14 4.0 4.0 92.6 41 2 .6 .6 93.1 42 3 .9 .9 94.0 44 2 .6 .6 94.6 45 3 .9 .9 95.4 47 2 .6 .6 96.0 48 1 .3 .3 96.3 49 1 .3 .3 96.6 50 5 1.4 1.4 98.0 52 1 .3 .3 98.3 53 1 .3 .3 98.6 55 1 .3 .3 98.9 60 4 1.1 1.1 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Sex Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid male 198 56.6 56.6 56.6 female 152 43.4 43.4 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Religion Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Muslim 327 93.4 93.4 93.4 Hindu 23 6.6 6.6 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Occupation Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid House wife 124 35.4 35.4 35.4 Garments worker 16 4.6 4.6 40.0 Day laborer 27 7.7 7.7 47.7 Govt.job 4 1.1 1.1 48.9 Private job 75 21.4 21.4 70.3 Small business 60 17.1 17.1 87.4 student 5 1.4 1.4 88.9 others 39 11.1 11.1 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Family income (monthly) Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 2000 1 .3 .3 .3 2100 1 .3 .3 .6 2500 1 .3 .3 .9 3000 7 2.0 2.0 2.9 3500 1 .3 .3 3.1 4000 10 2.9 2.9 6.0 4500 6 1.7 1.7 7.7 4750 1 .3 .3 8.0 5000 35 10.0 10.0 18.0 6000 53 15.1 15.1 33.1 6500 1 .3 .3 33.4 7000 58 16.6 16.6 50.0 7500 2 .6 .6 50.6 8000 34 9.7 9.7 60.3 8930 1 .3 .3 60.6 9000 31 8.9 8.9 69.4 10000 58 16.6 16.6 86.0 11000 3 .9 .9 86.9 12000 17 4.9 4.9 91.7 15000 4 1.1 1.1 92.9 17000 1 .3 .3 93.1 20000 7 2.0 2.0 95.1 22000 1 .3 .3 95.4 25000 1 .3 .3 95.7 30000 9 2.6 2.6 98.3 35000 4 1.1 1.1 99.4 40000 2 .6 .6 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Education Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Primary 89 25.4 25.4 25.4 Secondary 100 28.6 28.6 54.0 S.S.C 36 10.3 10.3 64.3 H.S.C 14 4.0 4.0 68.3 Graduation 12 3.4 3.4 71.7 don't know 99 28.3 28.3 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 proposed waist circumference Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid normal range 308 88.0 88.0 88.0 incease risk 42 12.0 12.0 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Diabetes Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 12 3.4 3.4 3.4 no 338 96.6 96.6 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Heart Disease Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 226 64.6 64.6 64.6 no 124 35.4 35.4 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Chronic Respiratory Disease Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 25 7.1 7.1 7.1 no 325 92.9 92.9 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 High Blood pressure Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 29 8.3 8.3 8.3 no 321 91.7 91.7 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Proposed nutrition level Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid undernourished 66 18.9 18.9 18.9 non undernaurished 284 81.1 81.1 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Proposed BMI Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid CED 113 32.3 32.3 32.3 Non CED 237 67.7 67.7 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Tobacco Use Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Yes 130 37.1 37.1 37.1 No 220 62.9 62.9 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0
 Betel leaf use Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Yes 28 8.0 8.0 8.0 No 322 92.0 92.0 100.0 Total 350 100.0 100.0

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