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Development of A Tissue Engineering Scaffold Structure Library for Rapid Prototyping

The designing and fabricating lattice or cellular structure is gladly improving, with the involvement of metal additive manufacturing process. Hanks et al, 2020 compiled the literature data for the characterization of metal additively manufactured lattice structures into Ashby-style plot (Hanks et al, 2020). Hanks and colleague gathered data of 18 different unit cell topologies from 69 papers. They developed a database and graphical user interface to allow user to compare mechanical properties of different lattice structure (Hanks et al, 2020).

Chantarapanich et al, 2012 utilised the additive manufacturing to restore, maintain or to improve tissue functions. They evaluated polyhedron models to develop scaffold CAD libraries. The found in their study that the rhombicuboctahedron, truncated octahedron and rhombitruncated cuboctahedron are included in close-cellular scaffold (Chantarapanich et al, 2012). Although, it was also found that for making open-cellular scaffold, not all pore size to beam size ratio is suitable. The Logistic Power Function demonstrated the correlation between porosity of open-cellular scaffold libraries and PO: BT ratio (Chantarapanich et al, 2012). The application of additive manufacturing in tissue engineering is vital. Cheah and team, 2003 created scaffolds using rapid prototyping (RP) techniques (Cheah et al., 2003). The research focuses on investigating and selecting different polyhedral shaped for scaffold structures, classification of unit cells, creating a library for scaffold structures.

The lattice can be optimized for specific loading conditions by fabricating process. The fabrication of such complex structures can be done by additive manufacturing (AM), which accumulate the material layer by layer and enhance the potential of the lattice structure (Dong et al, 2017). Dong and team, 2017 gave different aspects of modelling of lattice structure and established relation between them. The characteristic and influence of AM on lattice structure was discussed.

Bone tissue engineering also involves the use of porous cellular structures to replace and repair the original bone. Limmahakhun and team, 2017 fabricated a 192 open porous cellular structure using 3D printing technique. The 3D printed structures cubic, octahedral, truncated octahedral and pillar octahedral, were investigated (Limmahakhun et al., 2017). The investigation revealed that the pillar octahedral shape demonstrates greater strength and stiffness under compression, torsion and shear and also found the rate of pre-osteoblastic cell proliferation to be enhanced (Limmahakhun et al., 2017).

In biomedical field, the application of selective laser sintering (SLS) has been done to build small-scaled biomedical devices. Edith and team, 2010, developed a system which could be mounted on SLS part bed which can be operated without any extra energy supply (Edith et al., 2010). The devices they designed is an incorporated attachment which can be secure onto the building stand. The device lifts the powder supply bed from both sides simultaneously when the part bed is lowered at the centre of the device. It was evaluated that the power saved by this device was 6.5 times to use full version of Sinterstation 2500 (Edith et al., 2010). The developed device has also eliminated the problematic backlash while using compact adaptation device. The device improved the efficiency of powder usage, thus making it more economical for researches to fabricate parts and reduce powder preparation time while performing experiments on sintering biomaterials (Edith et al., 2010).

Apart from biomedical applications, another wide application of lightweight 3D lattice structures are for zero thermal-expansion and vibration attenuation structures, load bearing, blast and impact proof structures.

Lightweight 3D Lattice structures are widely used for multifunctional applications, such as load bearing, vibration attenuation,negative and zero thermal-expansion structures, impact and blast proof structures, etc. Qi et al., 2019 proposed a 3D lattice structure made up of truncated octahedron unit cells with tapered and regular beams and octet-truss (Qi et al., 2019). The fabrication of in-situ compression samples was done through selective laser melting (SLM). To study the effect on mechanical properties of lattice structure with ordinary beams by tampered beams monotonic compression experiments were performed (Qi et al., 2019). To evaluate the primary failure mechanism, SEM characterization of fracture surface morphology was performed. The asymptotic homogenization analysis revealed that the modules can be enhanced and anisotropy of the lattice can be reduced by node enforcement (Qi et al., 2019).

The material science researched a lot to synthesize and design cellular material for various discipline of engineering. Cellular material possess multi-functionality due to their complex topologies and length scale. The design and synthesis of such materials is controllable. Such materials is also known as “metamaterials”. Al-Ketan & Abu Al-Rub, 2019, designed and synthesised triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) topology based metamaterials for various applications (Al-Ketan & Abu Al-Rub, 2019). The mechanical properties and strength have been evaluated. Their study shows that the discrepancy between experimental and numerical results was caused by the structural defects that arose from the process of fabrication. It requires to develop a model that consider effect of process-related faults to remove the gap between experimental data and numerical simulations (Al-Ketan & Abu Al-Rub, 2019). The sheet–network strategy followed in designing lattice shows a stretching-dominated type of distortion and shows better stiffness and strength to weight ratio and more structurally efficient.

The literature survey showed that majority of the research has been conducted on metallic structures fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing. There is literature gap in regards to the research done with PS 2200 polyamide powder. Till date, no such study has been conducted using PS 2200

References for Scaffold Library for Tissue Engineering

Al-Ketan, O., & Abu Al-Rub, R. K. (2019). Multifunctional mechanical‐metamaterials based on triply periodic minimal surface lattices: A review. Advanced Engineering Materials. doi:10.1002/adem.201900524 

Chantarapanich, N., Puttawibul, P., Sucharitpwatskul, S., Jeamwatthanachai, P., Inglam, S., & Sitthiseripratip, K. (2012). Scaffold Library for Tissue Engineering: A Geometric Evaluation. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, 2012, 1–14. doi:10.1155/2012/407805

Cheah, C. M., Chua, C. K., Leong, K. F., & Chua, S. W. (2003). Development of a Tissue Engineering Scaffold Structure Library for Rapid Prototyping. Part 1: Investigation and Classification. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 21(4), 291–301. doi:10.1007/s001700300034 

Dong, G., Tang, Y., & Zhao, Y. F. (2017). A Survey of Modeling of Lattice Structures Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing. Journal of Mechanical Design, 139(10)

Edith Wiria, F., Sudarmadji, N., Fai Leong, K., Kai Chua, C., Wei Chng, E., & Chai Chan, C. (2010). Selective laser sintering adaptation tools for cost effective fabrication of biomedical prototypes. Rapid Prototyping Journal, 16(2), 90–99.

Hanks, B., Berthel, J., Frecker, M., & Simpson, T. W. (2020). Mechanical properties of additively manufactured metal lattice structures: data review and design interface. Additive Manufacturing, 101301.

Limmahakhun, S., Oloyede, A., Sitthiseripratip, K., Xiao, Y., & Yan, C. (2017). 3D-printed cellular structures for bone biomimetic implants. Additive Manufacturing, 15, 93–101.

Qi, D., Yu, H., Liu, M., Huang, H., Xu, S., Xia, Y., Wu, W. (2019). Mechanical behaviors of SLM additive manufactured octet-truss and truncated-octahedron lattice structures with uniform and taper beams. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 105091.doi:10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2019.105091

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