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Risk Factors for Stroke

Good [morning/afternoon/evening], everyone

I hope this presentation finds you well. My name is [Your Name], and I'm honored to stand before you today to discuss a topic of utmost importance in healthcare – Cerebral Vascular Accident or CVA, commonly known as a stroke. The first slide is Overview of Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA). Here we will discuss on the impact and risk factors associated to this disease.

CVA, often known as a stroke, is a medical emergency caused by an interruption in blood supply to the brain, resulting in brain cell damage. It is the biggest cause of death and disability in Australia. Stroke is a shockingly common occurrence in Australia, with one occurring every nine minutes (AIHW, 2023). Long-term problems, including as paralysis, speech difficulty, and memory deficits, are common among survivors. The healthcare system carries a significant fiscal burden as a result of managing stroke cases, which includes hospitalization, rehabilitation, and continuous care (Korie et al., 2022).

Understanding the risk factors associated with CVA is paramount. Elevated blood pressure, smoking, type II diabetes mellitus, and obesity are some of the key factors that significantly increase the likelihood of a stroke. Hypertension, in particular, damages blood vessels, promoting clot formation and increasing stroke risk(Elfaki et al., 2022). Smoking, a modifiable risk factor, is a major contributor to stroke. Diabetes plays a role in atherosclerosis and clot formation, further heightening the risk (Hankey et al., 2020). Obesity, indicated by a high body mass index, is associated with a higher likelihood of stroke.

In the next slide, I will discuss on the roles of Registered Nurses in the field of CVA care. They play an important role in educating patients and their families about stroke prevention techniques, such as lifestyle changes (Kuate et al., 2019). They also promote awareness about recognizing stroke symptoms, the importance of prompt intervention, and the value of medication adherence in lowering the risk of stroke. Furthermore, nurses promote rehabilitation programs by educating patients on exercises and therapies that might help them restore lost functions and gain independence.

Moving onto the next slide which is based on the importance of shared decision-making in nursing. Patients are empowered to actively participate in their care decisions through shared decision-making, which fosters a sense of ownership and commitment to the treatment plan (Pogrebnoy et al., 2019). This method enables the creation of tailored care plans in which treatment choices are reviewed, achievable goals are established, and patient requirements are addressed. In this setting, Registered Nurses assess not only the physical but also the emotional and social components of a patient's well-being to ensure that care is consistent with their values and desires.

The topic I'll be discussing on the next slide is the importance of nurse’s understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying CVA. This involves a thorough understanding of the many stroke kinds, such as ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, each with its own set of pathophysiological causes (Kuate et al., 2019). Regular neurological evaluations are an important aspect of nursing care since they allow for the early diagnosis of changes in a patient's health and allow for quick intervention to avert negative outcomes (Steadman). Furthermore, nurses closely monitor drugs such as antiplatelets, anticoagulants, and antihypertensives, which each target different processes to lower the chance of stroke recurrence.

Moving onto the next slide which covers Nursing Management Priorities for the patient;s CVA as per case study. Navigating the multifaceted nature of Kevin's CVA requires a comprehensive approach that includes both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. Administering prescription medications such as Perindopril and dual antiplatelet therapy (Aspirin and Clopidogrel) is critical in his condition management (Chang et al., 2021). Given his dysphagia, it is particularly critical to ensure that drugs are in a form that facilitates swallowing (Steadman et al., 2022). Additionally, keeping his blood pressure within normal ranges, cooperating with speech therapists for swallow assessments, having regular neurological exams, and giving emotional support and counseling are all important components of his treatment. Collaboration with physiotherapists and occupational therapists offers a customized rehabilitation plan centered on mobility and strength, which is critical to his recovery.

The last and final slide talks about promoting shared decision-making based on the case scenario. The nurse starts Priorities Clarification which delves into what is most important to Kevin. This procedure guarantees that the care plan is consistent with Kevin's distinct values and cultural beliefs, encouraging a patient-centered approach. Focusing on symptoms comprises the nurse asking Kevin about the symptoms he finds most difficult. This understanding enables interventions to be tailored to his individual concerns, ultimately improving his experience and overall outcomes. The discussion on balancing risks and benefits centers upon determining which risks and benefits are most important to Kevin. This information helps to integrate care with his values and interests, facilitating patient-centered decision-making. Finally, it is critical to determine whether Kevin has adequate support and advice. This stage ensures that he feels powerful and informed during the decision-making process, as well as prepared to deal with the emotional problems of stroke rehabilitation.

References

A & D Medical, (2022).The Link Between Hypertension and Stroke Risk. https://medical.andonline.com/the-link-between-hypertension-and-stroke-risk/

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. AIHW, (2023). Heart, stroke and vascular disease: Australian facts. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/heart-stroke-vascular-diseases/hsvd-facts/contents/all-heart-stroke-and-vascular-disease/stroke

Chang, R., Wu, J., Zhang, X., Ye, Y., Zhou, W., & Liu, Y. (2021). Analysis of the reactivity of aspirin and clopidogrel and its influencing factors in patients with coronary heart disease at high altitude. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2021. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2849982

Elfaki, B. A., & Mustafa, H. E. Knowledge And Perception Of Stroke Among Nursing Students.(2022). Int. J. Life Sci. Pharma Res , 12(1), L175-182. 10.22376/ijpbs/lpr.2022.12.1.L175-182

Hankey, G. J. (2020). Population impact of potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke. Stroke , 51(3), 719-728. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.024154

Istock, (2022). Ischemic And Hemorrhagic Stroke. https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-gm1297949004-390930964

Korie, M., Grant, T., Alves, J. B., & Obi, O. (2022) Identity Reconstruction, Recovery and Transition of Professionals to Work Following Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA). World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development . http://wwjmrd.com/upload/identity-reconstruction-recovery-and-transition-of-professionals-to-work-following-cerebral-vascular-accident-cva_1648448627.pdf

Kuate, L. M., Ondoa, H. O. B., Jean-Claude, K., Tankeu, A. T., Bokam, M. C. A., Bimbai, A. M., ... & Sobngwi, E. (2019). Effects of morning versus evening administration of perindopril on the circadian control of blood pressure in Cameroonian type 2 diabetes individuals: a crossover randomized trial. Int Arch Cardiovasc Dis , 3, 014. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3831/576a42473962f929af91a52e01a7ff0bfa8e.pdf

Larsson, S. C., & Burgess, S. (2021). Causal role of high body mass index in multiple chronic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of Mendelian randomization studies. BMC Medicine , 19, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-02188-x

Nursingfile, (2019)Principles Of Drug Administration Nursing. https://nursingfile.com/tag/principles-of-drug-administration-nursing

Nursingstandard, (2019). Shared decision-making: how nurses can help patients weigh up the issues. https://rcni.com/nursing-standard/features/shared-decision-making-how-nurses-can-help-patients-weigh-issues-145601

Pogrebnoy, D., & Dennett, A. (2020). Exercise programs delivered according to guidelines improve mobility in people with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives Of Physical Medicine And Rehabilitation , 101(1), 154-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2019.06.015

Steadman, K. J., Weng, M. T., Malouh, M. A., Symons, K., & Cichero, J. A. (2022). Swallowing safety of oral liquid medications: assessment using the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative framework. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research , 52(4), 283-293. https://doi.org/10.1002/jppr.1818

Truglio-Londrigan, M., & Slyer, J. T. (2018). Shared decision-making for nursing practice: an integrative review. The Open Nursing Journal , 12, 1. 10.2174/1874434601812010001

Van Sloten, T. T., Sedaghat, S., Carnethon, M. R., Launer, L. J., & Stehouwer, C. D. (2020). Cerebral microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes: stroke, cognitive dysfunction, and depression. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology , 8(4), 325-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30405-X

Wajngarten, M., & Silva, G. S. (2019). Hypertension and stroke: update on treatment. European Cardiology Review , 14(2), 111. 10.15420/ecr.2019.11.1

Wilson, S. E., & Ashcraft, S. (2019). Ischemic stroke: management by the nurse practitioner. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners , 15(1), 47-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2018.07.019

Nursing and Midwifery Board Aphra ( NMBA), (2023). Registered nurse standards for practice. https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/codes-guidelines-statements/professional-standards/registered-nurse-standards-for-practice.aspx

See our related work: Ischemic Stroke and Psychosocial Impact Assignment Sample

For more information read our blog on Biological Foundations Assessment Answers

Get your assignment help here: Medicine and Biology Assignment Help

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