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Goals are a word that is part of everyone's life that adds meaning to daily life activities and drives the human to achieve the extra mile every day. There is a number of theories present that is defining that how an individual is able to improve their performance and attain some goals (Mansfield et al., 2020). Goal-setting theory is an organizational psychological theory present that helps individuals to set clear, specific and challenging goals that motivate them. In the 1960s Edwin Locke put forward the theory of motivation, as per the given definition goal setting is linked with task performance. In simpler words, goals indicate and give direction to the employee that what needs to be done and how much effort needs to be put in. The important feature of goal-setting theory is to be specific and clear about the goals that is allowing greater output and better performance. Secondly, realistic and challenging goals that an individual is feeling pride after attaining (Vansteenkiste et al.., 2020). Thirdly, it will be encouraging a higher level of participation that is making the goals to be more acceptable.

Swann et al., (2021) goal setting is widely used for the promotion of physical activity. The framework that is utilized is comprised of setting goals in psychology and plays a crucial role in physical activity promotion. It is recently being used in the field of human performance science practitioners. Current practices are based on the performance and learning goals that make the inactivity state get converted into the active state. It will also take insight into the policy, research and practices in the goals settings. By this, an increase is seen in the community and commercial programs. Schippers & Ziegler's (2019) study reflects that with the sake of the theory, life crafting can be done. It will help in finding the meaning and purpose of life. It will be crafting the pressure that is experienced by people and allow them to find the actual meaning of life. The process will take takes the positive psychology and salutogenic framework. It is an approach lies that takes the factors that are supporting human health and well-being. By this, one values and passion can be used in the best possible manner which is important for attaining any goal. It comprises three elements that are discovering values and passion; reflecting the current and desired competencies and passion; reflecting on present and past social life. Cheng et al., (2019) study implies that technologies are being currently used in mapping and improving mental health and well-being. Gamification will make the adoption of a behaviourist approach that is relying on positive reinforcement. Current advancement and application in games from the perspective of wellness and improving mental health are showing significant results. The application of games technology not only improves the wellness field but significantly leading positive results in behaviour as well. Current trends mainly focus on setting goals for the sake of technology.

Comparison of Goal-setting Theory with Other Theories

In recent times, vision is becoming a major theme that is leading to motivation among various groups. It will be designed in a prototypical manner that is leading to the consideration of the handful of variables. It holds the characteristics like the vision that is evolving over a period of time, and self-satisfaction. It allows a meaningful way of achieving the goals (Al-Hoorue et al., 2020). It has been observed that the vision theory is the one that is being utilized in a wholesome manner. All these practices will lead to the meaningful direction of the goals. Goal achievement theory is making a person feel accomplished in the achievement of goals. It is seen as a way that is bringing personal goals to be received in a better manner with the stimulation of linguistics and intercultural competence (Miller 2020). Goal achievement theory is seen to be an effective one that is making the integration of motivation and goals. Therefore, in recent times the theory is found to be the greatest use.

Social psychological theories are the theories present that will be explaining the way in which people explain their own behaviour and with respect to others. It will be taking the scope, range, testability and parsimony into consideration (Staples et al., 2020). The theories are diverse in ranges that are requiring time to showcase the results. It will be focusing on the diverse range of rebound effects. All these theories seem to be working on multiple factors that are somehow not fulfilling the need of the individual. Also, lacking in meeting the goals due to which one or other aspect is remaining left (Szinay et al., 2020). On the other hand, it is found that the goal-setting theory will be providing a perfect balance of motivation and another factor that produces exemplary results.

Application of Goal Setting Theory in the Health and Wellness Sector

In recent times, there is a wide range of practices have been taken that are collaborating the capability, opportunity and motivation. It will be making the influence to be increased in terms of engagement of people. There are multiple application has been designed for the purpose of optimization of health and wellness. Integration of goal-setting theory with technology makes the increase in consumer base (Chiu et al., 2020). It makes people to be involved in decision-making and make commitments toward the goals. It is widely used by health and fitness coaches. It gives a new dimension to E-health and make a positive influence on consumer behaviour and conceptual models. Creation of a service ecosystem that is embedding a shared worldview where the guidance of managers and policymakers can be integrated. It will be improving the service outcomes and offers that a consumer is expected. All these aspects are going to make the goal-setting theory a success (Frow et al., 2019). It is found to be a relevant one in comparison to other theories by increasing the motivation among consumers and making their goals inclined.

FIIT (Frequency, intensity, time and type) principle application, it is seen that physical education is becoming a prominent factor for the fitness goal. It makes the health stay on track and will be eliminating the chances of any injuries. The combination of the FIIT principle and goal-setting theory is making a perfect combination of exercise frequency, intensity, time spent for a particular exercise or what kind of exercise is being performed. Taking the theory and principle, SMART goals will be planned that is bringing the inclination to fitness. It will make people work in a direction where fitness and wellness can be achieved.

Recommendation: The FIIT principle is a tried and true method lies that is putting the efficiency of working together (Grace et al., 2023). It is one of the great motivators lies that will be monitoring the exercise progress with cardiovascular activity. In addition, it allows any kind of injury or accident incidents to be reduced; by considering the amount of weight lifted, number of repetitions completed and number of sets. All this information is necessary for setting goals and making them accomplished for the sake of theory and principle. To get the desired outcomes, important is to take the theory and principle together, and understand the need for an individual and person-centred plan. In conclusion, healthcare providers and wellness instructors use the information to meet health goals.


Al-Hoorue, A. H., & Al Shlowiy, A. (2020). Vision theory vs. goal-setting theory: A critical analysis.

Cheng, V. W. S., Davenport, T., Johnson, D., Vella, K., & Hickie, I. B. (2019). Gamification in apps and technologies for improving mental health and well-being: systematic review. JMIR mental health6(6), e13717.

Chiu, W., Cho, H., & Chi, C. G. (2020). Consumers' continuance intention to use fitness and health apps: an integration of the expectation–confirmation model and investment model. Information Technology & People34(3), 978-998.

Frow, P., McColl-Kennedy, J. R., Payne, A., & Govind, R. (2019). Service ecosystem well-being: conceptualization and implications for theory and practice. European Journal of Marketing53(12), 2657-2691.

Grace, B., Taylor Lucas, C., Shetgiri, R., Cardenas, K., Perez de la Garza, G., Pak, Y., & Yee, J. K. (2023). Physical Activity Counseling and Documentation by Pediatric Residents in Primary Care: Before and After Introduction of the FITT Principle. Clinical Pediatrics62(5), 449-455.

Mansfield, L., Daykin, N., & Kay, T. (2020). Leisure and wellbeing. Leisure Studies39(1), 1-10.

Martela, F., & Sheldon, K. M. (2019). Clarifying the concept of well-being: Psychological need satisfaction as the common core connecting eudaimonic and subjective well-being. Review of General Psychology23(4), 458-474.

Miller, A. M. (2020). Investigating the Connection Between Achievement Goal Theory and Goal-setting Theory. Hispania103(3), 387-402.

Schippers, M. C., & Ziegler, N. (2019). Life crafting as a way to find purpose and meaning in life. Frontiers in Psychology10, 2778.

Staples, S., Webster, J., & Lv, S. C. (2020). Comparing goal setting approaches to boosting pro-environmental behaviors. Journal of Sustainability Research4(3).

Swann, C., Rosenbaum, S., Lawrence, A., Vella, S. A., McEwan, D., & Ekkekakis, P. (2021). Updating goal-setting theory in physical activity promotion: a critical conceptual review. Health Psychology Review15(1), 34-50.

Szinay, D., Jones, A., Chadborn, T., Brown, J., & Naughton, F. (2020). Influences on the uptake of and engagement with health and well-being smartphone apps: systematic review. Journal of medical Internet research22(5), e17572.

Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Soenens, B. (2020). Basic psychological need theory: Advancements, critical themes, and future directions. Motivation and emotion44, 1-31.

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