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Health promotion plan

Program Title: BreatheWell: Respiratory Health for a Better Tomorrow

Background

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary illness (COPD) is a persistent lung disease portrayed by limited wind stream, which causes breathing issues. This health issue is primarily affecting people mostly mining workers (Salepci, 2017). COPD is generally brought about by smoking, although occupational dangers like dust, gases, and synthetic substances in mining and manufacturing businesses can likewise contribute to its progression.

Health Issue and Needs

Due to its negative effects on respiratory health, COPD is a major health issue for the target population (Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis). COPD is one of the top reasons for mortality in Australia, representing around 7% of all deaths in 2020, as per information from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW, 2023). In the target community that is mining workers, there is a high rate of lung diseases has been reported that includes COPD. For example: In coal workers, the coal mine dust will leads to the progression of COPD and lung function impairment (Heraganahally et al., 2019).

COPD is particularly prevalent in manufacturing and mining sectors. It is found that occupational exposure to dust, gases, and chemicals put workers in these industries at a higher risk of developing COPD. Besides, the investigation discovered that labourers in these occupations had an impressively more prominent recurrence of COPD (in mining workers) than the general populace (Dabscheck et al., 2022).

Determinants of Health

The prevalence of COPD in the target group is influenced by a variety of health variables. COPD is more frequent in older people and somewhat more prevalent in males, therefore age and gender have a role (Pleasants et al., 2016). The influence of smoking on COPD incidence is clear, since AIHW data shows that smoking is responsible for 80% of COPD cases in Australia (Salepci, 2017). This emphasises the need of establishing successful smoking cessation programmes in the target group to lower COPD incidence. Individuals from poorer socioeconomic origins have greater smoking rates and less access to healthcare facilities, making socioeconomic status an important predictor (Kauhl et al., 2018). As per the statistics, male’s population shows a high rate of the COPD incidences as compared to any other population part. 90.8% involved in the mining activities having the danger of COPD. Nearly 47.3% were engaged in the underground mining activities, followed by surface operations 32.5% and managerial work 20.1%.

Burden of Disease

COPD imposes a significant burden on the target community of mine workers in Australia. COPD was the fifth highest cause of disease burden in Australia in 2015, according to the AIHW, assessed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2023). Males had a greater burden than females, and the 45-64 age groups had the greatest incidence of DALYs attributable to COPD. In terms of healthcare expenses, according to a research published in the International Journal of COPD, the direct healthcare costs of COPD in Australia in 2017 was AUD 977 million, with a projected increase to AUD 4.87 billion by 2030 (Gutiérrez Villegas et al., 2021). The study emphasised the importance of effective therapies in order to lower the financial burden of COPD on the healthcare system.

Importance of Health Intervention Program

Given the substantial burden of COPD and its links to smoking, occupational exposure, and socioeconomic status, a comprehensive health intervention programme is critical. Implementing evidence-based smoking cessation programmes aimed at the working-age population, particularly those in the mining and manufacturing industries, can considerably lower the prevalence of COPD (Cravo et al., 2022). Occupational health interventions, such as better safety regulations and respiratory protection, will also help reduce the risk of COPD development among employees in hazardous situations. BreatheWell is an intervention lies that can be implemented for the individuals with respiratory issues.

Health promotion program

The health promotion program's conceptual framework takes a socioecological approach, recognising that individual behaviours, social and cultural variables, as well as wider environmental and policy settings, all affect health outcomes (Yadav et al., 2020). By targeting these various levels of influence, we want to develop a comprehensive and long-term intervention to combat COPD in the target group of mining workers. 

Approach 

Medical, behavioural, and socioecological techniques will be used in the intervention programme (Ambrosino & Bertella, 2018). Through frequent tests and healthcare services, the medical approach entails giving access to early identification and effective management of COPD. To enhance respiratory health, the behavioural approach promotes smoking cessation and encourages lifestyle modifications (Cannon et al., 2018). Finally, the socio-ecological approach takes into account the social, cultural, and environmental elements that influence COPD and tries to apply occupational health interventions to safeguard employees from respiratory dangers in mining and industrial settings.

Levels of Health Intervention

The programme will focus on all three levels of health intervention: basic, secondary, and tertiary care. The major goal of the programme will be to minimise COPD risk factors through health education, awareness campaigns, and smoking cessation programmes (Cannon et al., 2018). Early diagnosis and management of COPD will be emphasised at the secondary level through frequent screenings and healthcare services. Finally, at the tertiary level, the programme will give assistance and resources to those who already have COPD, with the goal of improving their quality of life and preventing additional difficulties.

Ottawa Charter Strategies

Enable: This technique aims to enable individuals and communities to take charge of their own health. In this programme, we will assist the target population in quitting smoking and adopting healthy behaviours by offering the required resources, information, and support (Fry & Zask, 2016). Individuals can make more educated decisions for improved respiratory health if they are equipped with information and skills.

Mediate: Mediating is the process of promoting the alignment of many parties in order to enhance health (Thompson et al., 2017). The programme will function as a bridge builder, engaging with a variety of organisations, healthcare professionals, employers, and community leaders to implement occupational health measures in mining and manufacturing contexts. This partnership will foster an atmosphere in which employees can safeguard their respiratory health at work. Along with this, the advocacy strategy tries to increase public awareness of health concerns and encourage legislative changes that will result in better health outcomes (Thompson et al., 2017). The programme will lobby for laws that encourage smoking cessation programmes, higher occupational safety standards, and increased access to healthcare services for COPD prevention and management. One may establish a sustained and supportive environment for the target community's respiratory health by pushing for these improvements.

Setting

A community health centre was chosen as the location for the health promotion programme. This location was selected for its accessibility, comprehensiveness, and potential to attract a varied variety of persons from the target population, like miner workers. The community health centre fills in as a centre point for screenings, medical care administrations, and preparing programs on COPD counteraction and the executives (Nagel et al., 2021). Moreover, it empowers coordinated effort with medical services specialists, local area leaders, and key partners to productively carry out the program and adjust to the extraordinary prerequisites of the objective populace.

Aim(s)

Our health promotion program will probably lessen the occurrence of COPD and work on respiratory wellbeing among the targeted community, which incorporates Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis, mining labourers present in the Queensland community through a far reaching approach that incorporates smoking discontinuance, early discovery, and word related wellbeing measures.

Objectives

Specific 

Measurable 

Achievable 

Realistic 

Time bound 

To assist 50% of the target community (Queensland)(mining workers) in quitting smoking within six months and taking preventive steps in the mining activities.

Main Focus are Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis

The number of individuals who successfully quit smoking will be used to track progress, which will be validated by self-reported abstinence and confirmed by biochemical testing.

We seek to help clients in their quit journey by offering smoking cessation programmes, counselling sessions, and access to nicotine replacement treatment, making the goal possible within the period established.

The goal is achievable since it focuses on a specified subgroup of the target population (Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis) and uses evidence-based smoking cessation treatments.

The smoking cessation programme will be evaluated after six months.

To adopt enhanced respiratory protection measures in mining and industry settings in order to minimise occupational respiratory risks by 20% in one year

To assess the reduction in occupational respiratory risks, progress will be monitored by performing workplace inspections and analysing incident reports.

The goal of lowering respiratory dangers is possible through partnering with mining and industrial employers, providing workers with training on correct respiratory protection equipment use, and ensuring compliance with safety measures.

To increase occupational health in mining and industry environments, considering the stakeholders' engagement

Aiming for improvement within one year to successfully address the respiratory health concerns in the target community's employment environment

Objective 1

Health intervention

Stakeholders

Responsibility

Resource/tool

Workshops and Counselling Sessions for Smoking Cessation and creating awareness about mining activities among Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis.

Community Health Center Staff

Providing smoking cessation courses and counselling.

Counselling recommendations, as well as educational resources on the health dangers of smoking.

Target Community Members (Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis).

Participating in courses and counselling sessions, and making a commitment to stop.

Assistance from qualified healthcare specialists.

Rationale

In order to lower the risk of COPD among the target population—which includes Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis —the objective of quitting smoking is crucial. Smoking Cessation Workshops and Counselling Meetings have been demonstrated to be powerful treatments for smoking and the decrease of smoking-related illnesses. Salepci (2017), directed an examination to survey the viability of smoking end treatments, like guiding and bunch studios, and found that these intercessions enormously improved the possibility of halting smoking. The examination additionally accentuated the meaning of customised help and social strategies in further developing smoking suspension results (Hartmann-Boyce et al., 2018). The programme can successfully address the unique issues experienced by Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis in the target group by offering counselling and training targeted to individual requirements.

Staff from community health centres must be included as stakeholders for the smoking cessation programme to be effective. They have the knowledge and experience to offer evidence-based counselling and support throughout the quitting process. The health centre may provide nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and quit-smoking drugs, making it a valuable resource for Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis looking for assistance in quitting (Hartmann-Boyce et al., 2018).

Objective 2

Health intervention

Stakeholders

Responsibility

Resource/tool

Improved Respiratory Protection Measures Implementation by 20% in one year

Community Health Center Staff

Collaborating with mining and manufacturing businesses to put better measures in place

Occupational health guidelines, respiratory protective equipment

Mining and Factory Employers

Improving respiratory protection measures and enforcing them.

Training materials, safety protocols.

Workers in Mining and Factory Setting

Attending training classes on the effective use of respiratory protection equipment

Access to training sessions, awareness campaigns

Rationale 

Objective 2 is concerned with enhancing occupational health by introducing improved respiratory protection measures in mining and manufacturing settings in order to decrease occupational respiratory dangers. Collaboration with mining and industrial employers as stakeholders is critical to ensuring enhanced respiratory safety measures are implemented and enforced. According to Wizner et al. (2018), workplace safety measures, such as suitable respiratory protection equipment, considerably lower the incidence of occupational respiratory disorders. The BreatheWell programme may promote a safety-conscious culture within these industries by actively incorporating employers, hence increasing worker health and well-being.

Timeframe

The programme has 12-month duration to allow for the deployment of health promotion activities and the evaluation of their impact. A 12-month timeline finds a compromise between being practical and generating demonstrable results in a fair amount of time.

Duration: 12 months

Start date: 01.08.2023 End date: 31.7.2024

Activities

Month 1

Month 2

Month 3

Month 4

Month 5

Month 6

Month 7

Month 8

Month 9

Month 10

Month 11

Month 12

Program Planning and Resource Acquisition

Smoking Cessation Workshops and Counselling

Follow-Up and Support

Occupational Health Collaboration

Monitoring and Evaluation

Data Analysis and Program Report

Evaluation plan

Objective

Process Indicators

Data collection method for the process

Outcome indicator

Data collection method for the outcome

Smoking Cessation

Number of Smoking Cessation Workshops Conducted

Program Records, Community Health Centre Staff

Percentage of Participants Who Quit Smoking Successfully

Self-reporting and Validated by Biochemical Testing

Participation Rate in Smoking Cessation Counselling

Program Records, Community Health Centre Staff

Reduced Daily Smoking Rate Among Members of the Target Community

Pre- and Post-Intervention Surveys, Community Health Centre Staff

Occupational Health Improvement

Collaboration Meetings with Mining and Factory Employers

Program Records, Community Health Centre Staff

20% reduction in occupational respiratory hazards

Workplace Inspections, Incident Reports, Community Health centre Staff

Participation in Respiratory Protective Equipment Training

Program Records, Community Health centre Staff

Workers' Protective Equipment Knowledge and Adherence

Training Evaluation, Worker Surveys, Community Health centre Staff

References

Ambrosino, N., & Bertella, E. (2018). Lifestyle interventions in prevention and comprehensive management of COPD. Breathe14(3), 186–194. https://doi.org/10.1183/20734735.018618

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2023, February 9). Chronic respiratory conditions, Summary. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-respiratory-conditions/chronic-respiratory-conditions/contents/summary

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare . (2023, June 30). Chronic respiratory conditions: COPD. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-respiratory-conditions/copd-1

Cannon, D. L., Sriram, K. B., Liew, A. W.-C., & Sun, J. (2018). Resilience Factors Important in Health-Related Quality of Life of Subjects With COPD. Respiratory Care63(10), 1281–1292. https://doi.org/10.4187/respcare.05935

Cravo, A., Attar, D., Freeman, D., Holmes, S., Ip, L., & Singh, S. J. (2022). The Importance of Self-Management in the Context of Personalized Care in COPD. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease17(17), 231–243. https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S343108

Dabscheck, E., George, J., Hermann, K., McDonald, C. F., McDonald, V. M., McNamara, R., O’Brien, M., Smith, B., Zwar, N. A., & Yang, I. A. (2022). COPD‐X Australian guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2022 update. Medical Journal of Australia217(8). https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.51708

Fry, D., & Zask, A. (2016). Applying the Ottawa Charter to inform health promotion programme design. Health Promotion International32(5), 901–912. Oxford Academic. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw022

Gutiérrez Villegas, C., Paz-Zulueta, M., Herrero-Montes, M., Parás-Bravo, P., & Madrazo Pérez, M. (2021). Cost analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a systematic review. Health Economics Review11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13561-021-00329-9

Hartmann-Boyce, J., Chepkin, S. C., Ye, W., Bullen, C., & Lancaster, T. (2018). Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews5(5). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd000146.pub5

Heraganahally, S. S., Wasgewatta, S. L., McNamara, K., Eisemberg, C. C., Budd, R., Mehra, S., & Sajkov, D. (2019). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal patients of the Northern Territory of Australia: A landscape perspective. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseVolume 14, 2205–2217. https://doi.org/10.2147/copd.s213947

Kauhl, B., Maier, W., Schweikart, J., Keste, A., & Moskwyn, M. (2018). Who is where at risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? A spatial epidemiological analysis of health insurance claims for COPD in Northeastern Germany. PLOS ONE13(2), e0190865. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190865

Nagel, D. A., Keeping-Burke, L., & Shamputa, I. C. (2021). Concept Analysis and Proposed Definition of Community Health Center. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health12, 215013272110464. https://doi.org/10.1177/21501327211046436

Pleasants, R., Riley, I., & Mannino, D. (2016). Defining and targeting health disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseVolume 11(11), 2475–2496. https://doi.org/10.2147/copd.s79077

Salepci, B. (2017). Other Pharmacological and Developing Treatments in Smoking Cessation/Nicotine Vaccines. Güncel Göğüs Hastalıkları Serisi4(1), 118–127. https://doi.org/10.5152/gghs.2016.017

Thompson, S. R., Watson, M. C., & Tilford, S. (2017). The Ottawa Charter 30 years on: still an important standard for health promotion. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education56(2), 73–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2017.1415765

Wizner, K., Nasarwanji, M., Fisher, E., Steege, A. L., & Boiano, J. M. (2018). Exploring respiratory protection practices for prominent hazards in healthcare settings. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene15(8), 588–597. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2018.1473581

Yadav, U. N., Lloyd, J., Hosseinzadeh, H., Baral, K. P., & Harris, M. F. (2020). Do Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) Self-Management Interventions Consider Health Literacy and Patient Activation? A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine9(3), 646. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030646

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