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Slide 1: Introduction

Title: Environmental Psychology and Sustainable Futures

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Slide 2: Description of Theory 

The landscape theory highlights the ways to sketch as well as design the landscapes in an effective way. How landscapes can be better managed for the use of humans in recent and future scenarios without any sort of difficulties is mentioned by landscape theory. 

Slide 3: Landscape Theory 

The planning, creating, and maintaining of beautiful landscapes for consumption, inspiration, and pleasure is the focus of landscape theory. The main source is nature. Ian McHarg, the most well-known landscape architect of the 20th century, once said that man should "design with nature." According to Lewis Mumford, McHarg "regenerates the hope for an improved globe" by offering us a picture of biological exuberance and human joy that ecology and environmental design propose to open up for all. By doing so, the knowledge regarding the area also enhances and this can be utilized in the future in evaluating varied other aspects of this field.

Slide 4: Stress Recovery Theory 

Other than this, stress recovery theory is one of the most natural theories that can be used for attaining relief from stress (Schiebel, 2022). This theory can best be suited for getting freedom from the stress arriving from both physiological as well as psychological aspects. However, the theory makes use of varied types of natural elements such as greenery and water to introduce positive emotions, calmness, pleasure, etc. Not only this but with the use of such types of elements, alertness is also introduced within the minds to mitigate the range of stress. It also highlights that stress reduction theory tries to identify the emotional as well as psychological influences resulting in stress on the mind (Gaekwad, 2023). 

Slide 5: Biophilia Hypothesis Theory

The goal of biophilic construction is to design structures and environments that foster human interaction with the natural world. It uses natural materials, lighting, and components to improve occupant efficiency and well-being as well as the environmental impact of the construction sector.As per the biophilia hypothesis theory, human beings are directly attracted to nature. It is mainly due to the love and affection of the humans for the living things. It is mainly due to the enact bonding of humans with nature and this inspires them towards it. Instead of this, humans always try to remain surrounded by natural things and always desire to protect and safeguard them from external risks. This also heightens their binding with one another. 

Slide 6, Slide 7, Slide 8, Side 9: Integration With Theoretical Frameworks

The field of environmental psychotherapy has two goals in mind: Considering our connection to scenery. Initially, there has been an emphasis on quantitative analysis to provide guidance for landscaping legislators on people's perception, evaluation, and preferences in specific panoramas. Furthermore, there have been further qualitative studies that have made an effort to determine the meaning of "landscape" to learn. Many perspectives of landscape research use a behaviorist approach viewpoint, most usually symbolized by a model of response-stimulus of human conduct. The landscape could seen from the viewpoint of The person who performs distinct duties in various contexts in society, even if each person may play several roles. concurrently. The fields of design are generally instructed that the foundational elements of perception consist of color, form, and shape. Costs are operational. natural resources that consist of a specific and psychologically significant environmental taxonomy. This strategy has been expanded to several of the scene's tangible components. They've looked at the size and position of the greenery.  Integrate knowledge of the theories, methods, and practice of environmental psychology to explain, predict, and influence human-environment interactions, the goal of psychophysical techniques of landscape evaluation is to find mathematical connections between spectators' subjective judgments and the physical features of landscapes(Lange&Dewitte 2019). A reasonable amount of one characteristic will often elicit a favorable response, while an excessive amount of one feature will elicit a negative response due to the link between stated desire and physical trait. It implies that similarly complicated natural and artificial settings will be favored. It could be necessary to include a danger to strengthen the escape symbols. Therefore, evaluating the environment's attributes from a human perspective is a component of artistic approaches to it. It would be more accurate to refer to it as the cognitive model because it emphasizes the emotive and cognitive responses elicited by diverse behavioral aspects. 

Employing multiple physiological stress measurements, they discovered that those who were exposed to natural settings as opposed to urban ones recovered from stress more quickly and completely. Individuals with a nature-dominated drive had higher immunity to a later stressful experience and rebounded from it more rapidly than those with an artifact-dominated desire during a stroll.Communicate information to a diverse audience, through a protected area of nature, but not when strolling through a city. Recovery of cognition requires gradually: emptying the mind, returning focus, confronting accumulating issues, and goal-setting contemplation. Stress management can involve physical environments; in particular, empirical links have been established by studies between encounters with natural surroundings and recuperation from physical strain and mental exhaustion, assisting both stress theories of attention maintenance and recovery. The psycho-evolutionary concept is what the former is, while the psycho-functionalist theory is what the latter is. The evolutionary viewpoint argues that individuals are somewhat physically and maybe mentally suited to natural settings rather than urban ones since humans developed over extended natural habitats. There was no indication of parasympathetic participation in reaction to urban surroundings during the early stages of recovery, but there was a documented autonomic component responding to natural environments. Anxiety is typically associated with elevated arousal and, thus, decreased alpha intensity. All of these findings imply that when people are exposed to natural stimuli, their bodies get less excited and they become more relaxed but awake.

Slide 10, Slide 11: Practice of Environmental Psychology to Explain and Predict

Environment psychology is multicultural psychology. The writers' diverse cultural backgrounds and international partnerships. international cooperation. coding techniques. methods for understanding how people see environments based on evolution. Limitations of methods to landscape perception based on evolution.

Slide 12: Apply Research And Theories Of Environmental Psychology

Apply research and theories of environmental psychology to the evidence-based design of a community-based project,  the part place attachment and identification play in how people view and interact with their surroundings. Methodological and theoretical ramifications(Geigeret al.,2019). A model of the processes involved in social development is the multi-level view. Consequences of the a managed leasing partnership for an environmental psychology focused on transformation. Pro-environmental group activity is predicted by social identity. An organization with a focus on environmental opinions and involvement in environmental group actions. connecting green consumerism and affiliation with an opinion-based group that supports the environment. Since the data in this article is correlational, it is not possible to establish the link's purported causality. To ascertain the relationship between opinion community. There is a causal relationship between social identity and the desire to engage in environmentally friendly collective action, a controlled or longitudinal method would be required. Psychologists have generally disregarded this context, presuming that person-centered, as opposed to person-in-environment, explanations account for the majority of behavior(Gaekwad, 2023). The history of applied environmental behavioral psychology has been greatly impacted by the necessity to provide answers to questions raised by practical worries of architects, planners, and other professionals in charge of the design, construction, and oversight of surroundings because ecological psychologists are qualified to understand person-in-environment issues. A thought-provoking conceptual ambiguity that is sometimes lacking in usual VIAs that have concentrated on projects viewed as solely negative, industrial-aesthetic intrusions in natural environments is added by the clean, sustainable nature of wind energy. Because of this, public opinion polls about renewable energy initiatives are particularly crucial for comprehending a variety of problems. Because of this, we chose three research publications that service.

Visual-aesthetic values are included in multi-resource evaluations. Visualizations of landscapes are used in visual evaluations. The intentional endeavor to incorporate biophilia—the awareness of the innate human affinity with natural systems and processes—into the physical environment's design is known as biophilic design. Several theories examine the relationship between people and the natural world, either in isolation or as a component of a larger theory. Identify key issues and phenomena studied by environmental psychologists, the fields of ecopsychology have often been used to build these hypotheses. Research using various techniques to detect mental health • A broad interpretation of what defines "natural" and "urban" surroundings, resulting in different participant responses to these areas • Using different approaches for defining "lab" and "submersion" encounters • Personal or regional variables.

The impact of implementing biophilic design would likewise fall into different categories on this scale based on how well it serves inhabitants. Therefore, it would be wise for a potential designer to use biophilic design to aim to enhance the degree of perceptual connection with the environment through the design. Human emotional advantages from interacting along such trends may exceed those of the data shown here. Consequently, the advantages of nature included in this systematic review should only serve as a foundation for meaningful interactions with nature. The goal of the investigation was to contrast the impacts of urban and natural settings. This comparison is expected to maximize observable effects, i.e., the abundance of components in natural settings that promote good effects and lessen negative effects.

Slide 13: Outcomes (Communicate Information To A Diverse Audience)

The idea that a person is a sophisticated thinker with objectives and a changeable nature forms the basis of the theoretical investigation of comfort and contentment. The potential is either enhanced or restricted by the limitations and opportunities of the historical, social, and physical environments in which the impacted person does business(Holfelder, 2019). This mutual interaction among behavioral, environmental, and interpersonal factors, and the dualism is caused by the application of self-influence. The following are the fundamental areas of environmental cognitive psychology (1) Environmental principles, attitudes, and evaluation, (2) senses and perceptions, and (3) behavior problems. 

Slide 14, Slide 15: (The Evidence-Based Design Of A Community-Based Project)

It investigates these mechanisms in connection to the surrounding environment and circumstances in which they arise Instead of trying to fit employees into the workplace, the organization should recognize that there will be an interaction between the staff and the environment, and if the staff member cannot or will not be pushed into the context, they will either seek to adjust the configuration to more closely resemble their operating demands and desires; otherwise, they risk becoming unhappy, displeased, and ineffective. Several positive ideas and attitudes are credited with contributing to the growing ecological awareness in our communities. Psychologists have generally disregarded this background, presuming that person-centered theories account for the majority of behavior. The requirement to respond to inquiries brought out by constructors' practical issues designers and other experts in charge of the organization, administration, and layout of the environment.

Slide 16: Reflective Description Of Environmental Element

The environmental element comprises numerous elements of nature that assist in getting integrated with the environment. These can be water, air, flora, soil, fauna, and many other socio-economic factors. The ways by which, these features of nature offer an effective impact on humans and attract them (Almén, 2022). Thus, it can be revealed that each of the elements of the environment are extremely essential and so they need to be protected and saved. Otherwise, all of these elements can be damaged and this can hurt humans. However, such is not done, and the environment is getting polluted day by day. 

Slide 17, Slide 18, Slide 19: Communication

Landscape theory tries to communicate the effective features of any landscape so that it can be proven advantageous for the individual. With the help of communication, the inner knowledge and information regarding any particular point of landscape theory can be cleared and this can also increase the depth of the person. Due to this regard, communication plays a very essential role. Apart from this, it also helps in making varied types of analysis that cannot be possible without communication. In addition to this, communication also assists in predicting the exact bonding between the individual and the environment as mentioned in the biophilia hypothesis theory. It is with the help of communication, an inherent connectivity can be developed between humans and nature. Along with this, humans are predisposed to nature and the love among them can be expressed through their affections. With the use of communication, connectivity with nature enhances and this reduces the level of stress entirely. In addition to this, it also amplifies the cognitive functions as well as creativity within the environment, which is extremely beneficial for mitigating the level of stress within the individual. Along with this, communication is also equally essential as stated by stress recovery theory. Since, the stress of the person can be minimized with the use of coordination with others (King, 2022). This can prove effective in identifying the exact reasons for stress and this can be easily removed. By doing so, the person can be saved from becoming depressed and this can also amplify his or her attention towards the assigned tasks. However, if communication is not performed accurately then the person can never get relief from the psychological stress and this can hinder his professional life as well. So it can be stated that it is extremely essential to maintain active communication with one another to remain free from tension and stress. On the contrary, it can be said that failure to do so can prove extremely problematic for the person in the long run. Hence, communication plays an active role for individuals suffering from depression and mental tensions in recent times. 

Slide 20, Slide 21: (Identify Key Issues And Phenomena Studied By Environmental Psychologists)

Environmental psychology has given rise to several theories: behavior settings, affordance theory, and theories of place, place identity, and place attachment within transactional; control, stress adaptation, behavioral plasticity, cognitive mapping, and environmental evaluation within an interactionist paradigm; and arousal theory, environmental load, and adaptation level theory within a behaviorist and determinist paradigm. Three main aspects of the environment are (1) observations and cognitions; (2) beliefs, mindsets, and judgment; and (3) behavioral difficulties. It examines these processes in light of the circumstances and surrounding environment.


Almén, N. (2022). Intervening Stress Recovery Behaviors in Everyday Life (Doctoral dissertation, Mid Sweden University). Stress recovery theory.

Blatti, J.L., Garcia, J., Cave, D., Monge, F., Cuccinello, A., Portillo, J., Juarez, B., Chan, E. and Schwebel, F., 2019. Systems thinking in science education and outreach toward a sustainable future. Journal of chemical education, 96(12), pp.2852-2862.

Gaekwad, J. S. (2023). A meta-analysis of physiological stress responses to natural environments: Biophilia and Stress Recovery Theory perspectives. Journal of Environmental Psychology.

Geiger, J.L., Steg, L., Van Der Werff, E. and Ünal, A.B., 2019. A meta-analysis of factors related to recycling. Journal of environmental psychology, 64, pp.78-97.

Han, H., 2021. Consumer behavior and environmental sustainability in tourism and hospitality: A review of theories, concepts, and latest research. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(7), pp.1021-1042.

Holfelder, A.K., 2019. Towards a sustainable future with education? Sustainability science, 14(4), pp.943-952.

Ives, C.D., Freeth, R. and Fischer, J., 2020. Inside-out sustainability: The neglect of inner worlds. Ambio, 49, pp.208-217.

King, B. C. (2022). The Biophilia Hypothesis and Mental Health: A Call for Biophilic Design. In Emerging Approaches in Design and New Connections With Nature (pp. 253-265). IGI Global.

Lange, F. and Dewitte, S., 2019. Measuring pro-environmental behavior: Review and recommendations. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 63, pp.92-100.

Schiebel, T. G. (2022). Testing the Biophilia theory: Automatic approach tendencies towards nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 79, 101725.

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