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Part A

In this segment of the paper, I would like to provide a detailed discussion along with a critical reflection on my attributes as an individual. The discussion thereby would revolve around my core values, and beliefs along with my weaknesses, strengths, the skills that I possess as well as my moral and ethical position. The segment would be dedicated primarily towards developing a connection between the cultural background and the personal style of communication, conflict resolution and personality. Such an understanding would be helpful in developing a connection with the leadership style that I adopt.

I am Abberio Valentino Jopotero and I have come from an affluent family. My ethnic background is from an Asian Indonesian family where the cultural value that we grew up with is mostly the ones prominent in Indonesia. We have learnt to value friendliness, tolerance, cooperation and also care for one another. However, as far as my cultural influence is considered I draw mostly from the culture of Pancasila where culturally five basic principles are being followed. These are justice , democracy, humanity, divinity and unity. The leadership style that I prefer to look up to is the democratic leadership style . This style of leadership is also referred to as participative management where people who are being led are involved actively within the managerial process. In the case of democratic leaders, the concern is to attain feedback from the members constantly as well as inputs so that the subordinates can be reverted back. Participation and conversation in the decision-making process is an ideal which is encouraged under this leadership style.

As the name of the style suggests it has been derived from the word democracy which is suggestive of the fact that it is based on the inputs of the people where people involved have the decision-making power. The role of the democratic leader is to value and welcome the input of others and thereby rely highly on the participation of the team. Such a style of leadership is also noted for its ability to facilitate discussions which in turn enable the groups to make their point felt within the process of decision making. In the course of this discussion, I would like to reflect on certain aspects of leadership and try to connect them with my personal understanding of leadership and associated attributes. It can be noted that decision-making within leadership can be executed through four different types of leadership attributes. These are as follows: - command, consensus, collaboration and convenience. I would personally connect with the collaborative style of leadership where we are able to bring about people within the same umbrella of decision-making to ensure that their opinions are taken into account. In such ways, the employees are made to feel valuable and important in the organization.

I feel it is important for leaders to connect to their subordinates as the organization operates with the contribution of the members. To bring them under the operation of the organization is an effective way through which the members can be valued. As I had mentioned earlier democracy is a cultural value that I have grown up with. In my sophomore year, I have seen members of our community valuing the importance of the other members of the community irrespective of their socio-economic factors. It has not only allowed an effective and fruitful collaboration between the members but has contributed towards effective outcomes for the community and the individuals as well. My ethical values are friendliness, cooperation, care and tolerance, The democratic leadership style in my opinion can prove to be effective as it keeps open the avenue for discussion and communication.

Irrespective of the leadership style that one undertakes it is important to note that the effective leader is skilled at the art of speaking persuasively. The type and the nature of words and language being used along with the professional skills become important to be considered. Therefore the effectiveness of any form of leadership is dependent on how effectively the concerned individual carries out or executes the leadership. Discussion by Hilton (2021) discusses how contingent reward and democratic leadership have an effective correlation and can be reflected in the increased productivity of the organization. Leadership communication is also about how trust is being developed among the members. The dimension of trust is loyalty, consistency, openness, integrity and competence. Trust can be referred to as the positive expectation as opposed to the other which is utilized in developing familiarity and reducing vulnerability (Wilson 2020).

As far as my leadership attributes through communication is considered I am struggling a bit to develop persuasive communication as I tend to get influenced by the opinion of others. This in my opinion is the largest flaw in my leadership whereby I am unable to uphold effective communication with my subjects. Irrespective of the fact that I follow a democratic leadership style it becomes important for me to use an effective communication style to be able to cater to my subjects as well as pass on the message accurately. Other challenges that I have experienced while executing my leadership styles are conflict resolution and management of the same. I have experienced that in most instances the leaders struggle with catering to the conflicts in the organization effectively (Mansaray 2019). Management of the conflicts within the organization thereby becomes effective in the leadership process as well. Trust and developing a culture where knowledge is shared among the members of different levels is also a characteristic of any effective and modern leadership style. In my opinion, it is effective for any particular style of leadership to circulate knowledge and also develop a sense of trust among the members. Developing an effective style of communication along with a culture of sharing knowledge and resolving conflicts should be worked upon by me.

I consider that developing the culture of the organization comes under my duties and thereby I utmost care in ensuring that the culture is developed effectively. I need to observe and participate in the active unity of the organization. I also feel that I am required to assist the members of the organization in understanding their respective roles in the organization. I have also considered supporting skills through which skills can be developed with human-like employees can be added upon. Another area that I would like to reflect upon in this course of discussion is leadership in the Asian culture. The cultural factors intrinsic to these countries are embedded in their cultural understanding. One of the primary cultural leadership underpinnings which influences leadership is Buddhism. Buddhism enriches personal development and focuses on group harmony which is crucial for ensuring proper managerial activity. Leaders who are authentic thereby have a clear understanding of their identity and origins (Jony et al., 2019)

In my opinion, an effective cultural understanding is crucial while taking into account the relationship between the employer and employee through the form of a business relationship. The relationship in the business is based upon the assumption that a culture of shared communication contributes to what is called calculative culture. The quality of the work done is dependent on the communication carried out in the organization as per Devi and Subiyantoro (2021) and thereby leadership plays a crucial role in motivating it. The most motivating factor in this respect is dependent on fact whether the culture is good for an individual. The culture that I come from is a collectivist culture. In a collectivist culture, the relationship between the employer and the employee comes with a moral component. It is considered to be similar in relation to a parent to the child. There is also an extended family on the grounds of traditional obligation on the part of the employer. In the collectivist culture, leadership is dedicated to encouraging and respecting the employee's group loyalties. The incentives required to be provided collectively and thereby the distribution required to be left to the concern of the group.

In regard to culture, I would also like to suggest that any attempts which are being made at transferring leadership skills without taking into account the values of teams come with little chance of succeeding. In certain cultural contexts where new leadership traits are required, it is crucial that the cultural aspects of the institutions along with the values of the members. This is a practice that I personally believe in undertaking within the scope of our organization. I feel that the organizational culture should take into consideration the values of the institution and the team members to develop new leadership skills within the organization (Putra et al., 2021).

My leadership attributes have been developed from my cultural understanding which I have grown up with. My leadership values are thereby motivated by a collective culture and a culture of collaboration where friendliness and tolerance have been the predominant values. I need to work on my communication skills which is my area of weakness so that I can develop my leadership attributes effectively.

Part B

Hilton, S.K., Arkorful, H. and Martins, A., 2021. Democratic leadership and organizational performance: the moderating effect of contingent reward. Management Research Review, 44(7), pp.1042-1058.

The purpose of the article by Hilton is dedicated to investigating the moderating impact of contingent reward on the mutual relationship between the performance of the organization and democratic leadership. The research has conducted an understanding through a cross-sectional survey design. A quantitative approach to research has been taken towards adopting data collection from about 476 employees working in the industry of telecommunication. For the social science department statistic package was used where the data was analyzed with the help of descriptive statistics with the help of hierarchical regression and correlation techniques.

The result of the study has reflected upon the fact that democratic leadership in connection with contingent reward has been found to have a positive impact on the performance of the organization. It has also been found in the course of the analysis that contingent reward moderates and augments the relationship between organizational performance and democratic leadership. The cumulated democratic leadership in its connection with contingent reward has been noted to be more likely to produce a higher level of organizational performance.

The study has been effective in general as it has made certain significant contribution to the studies of leadership and organizational literature where the effectiveness of contingent reward as a moderating force had been established between organizational performance and democratic leadership.

Wilson, D.E., 2020. Moving toward democratic-transformational leadership in academic libraries. Library Management, 41(8/9), pp.731-744.

The purpose of the article is dedicated to exploring leadership behaviour in the academic library where the methods and behaviours of integrating the transformational and democratic leadership styles. The research has involved structured interviews between the directors and academic deans. The mode of analysis which has followed the process is a thematic content analysis conducted upon their response. This involved analyzing the recurrence of certain topics or any themes which might be emergent in the course of the analysis. The themes gathered in the process of discussion involved constructing a communication model which is democratic. Five general leadership themes have been deduced from the thematic analysis which elucidated the ways in which communication can be incorporated within democratic leadership style. The aspects are participation in decision-making, knowing the environment, equality, honest and frequent communication and relationship building.

The research however comes with certain limitations in the process of its execution as the structured format of the interview does not permit the scope for unplanned follow-up questions where certain topics might have emerged until the questions had been specifically asked by the interviewer. Since the nature of the study is qualitative the participants' perspective would not be generalized to the perspective of the larger population.

The study has thereby identified the core themes associated with leadership which goes beyond the concern of transformational leadership to suggest that the democratic communication model assists in integrating the methods of democratic leadership. Such a leadership method integrates the practices and goals of transformational leadership. The study suggests that the sole emphasis on transformational leadership should consider increasing focus on democratic leadership practices.

Mansaray, H.E., 2019. The role of leadership style in organisational change management: a literature review. Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1), pp.18-31.

In regards to organizational change management, the role of leadership style has been investigated considerably in the course of the article where the authors have made conscious efforts in presenting and covering a wide range of literature on the role of leadership in regards to organizational change. It has been found in the course of discussion that a range of leadership styles can prove to be effective in terms of promoting the change management process in the organization. The leadership styles involve transformational leadership, authoritarian leadership, democratic leadership style, transactional leadership style and others. It has been further learnt in due process that leadership is considered one of those affirmative factors conducive to bringing about changes in the organization. It has also been discovered in the course of analysis that leadership has evolved as an essential component for effective change management in any organization so as to face continuous competitiveness in the market. In the course of analysis, it has been reflected that transformational leadership can prove to be effective in guiding the organisation through change management of the process though it discusses that each leadership style has its ability to cater to the changes in the organization and guide the organization through it. It has been mentioned that it is fundamental for the leadership to ensure regular communication.

Devi, A.D. and Subiyantoro, S., 2021. Implementation of democratic leadership style and transformational head of madrasah in improving the quality. Nidhomul Haq: Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Islam, 6(1), pp.14-26.

The aim of the concerned research is to elucidate how implementing transformational and democratic leadership styles in concerned educational organizations contributes towards their success. The research method which has been utilized here involves a qualitative approach and the study has involved primary sources of data gathered through interviews and online media-generated secondary data.

The result of the research has elucidated that the ability of a leader to take the mission and vision of the organization through effective implementation is crucial in improving the quality of the operation and its productivity. The behaviour of the leader has been considered accountable in this respect where it has been noted that the ability of the leader to communicate effectively acts as a guiding factor in ensuring that the quality of education provided is improved.

It has been reflected that the ability of the leader to communicate effectively acts as a crucial and deciding factor behind the effectiveness of the organization. The conduct of the leaders along with their behaviours in its cumulative forms contributes towards developing a better understanding of how the problem-solving attitudes of the leaders through a process of interaction and discussion ensures a good quality of education.

Jony, M.T.I., Alam, M.J., Amin, M.R. and Jahangir, M., 2019. The impact of autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles on the success of the organization: A study on the different popular restaurants of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Canadian Journal of Business and Information Studies, 1(6), pp.28-38.

 The study has considered taking into account three different styles of leadership namely Democratic, Autocratic and Laissez-Faire to note their impact on the success of the organization. The research was conducted through a survey carried out on 60 respondents. A well-designed and structured questionnaire was utilised to elucidate the responses from the respondents. A combination of closed and open data has been gathered from the respondents. It has been elucidated in the course of the discussion that the driving factors which can be noted to have a considerable impact on the performance of the organization involve involvement, decision-making, advice, and shared and democratic leadership style. It has been found in the course of the discussion that the autocratic leadership style creates a negative impact and the Laissez-Faire style has no impact on the outcomes of the organization. It has been elucidated in the course of the discussion that the democratic leadership style can be found to be more influential in terms of the performance of the employees. This is so because it allows the organization to effective leadership approach and manage the organization in influence of leadership styles.

Putra, R., lima Krisna, N. and Ali, H., 2021. a Review Literature Employee Performance Model: Leadership Style, Compensation and Work Discipline. Dinasti International Journal of Management Science, 3(1), pp.56-66.

The study has aimed to study the impact of different leadership styles on factors like work discipline, compensation and employee performance. The research has involved qualitative methods and library research. It has been reflected in the course of discussion that leadership style contributes with a significant and positive impact on the performance of the employee. Compensation has been noted to have a significant and positive effect on the performance of the employee and work discipline. This has also been noted to have a significant and positive effect on the performance of the employees.

The company's ability to achieve targets as well as attain their success or failures is dependent on the performance of the organization and therefore leadership style requires to be considered to maintain the work conditions and create a condition where the employees are made to feel safe. The employees who have high discipline in terms of work are influential in executing their work to attain the strategies and the results in accordance with the targets set by the company.

References

Devi, A.D. and Subiyantoro, S., 2021. Implementation of democratic leadership style and transformational head of madrasah in improving the quality. Nidhomul Haq: Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Islam, 6(1), pp.14-26.

Hilton, S.K., Arkorful, H. and Martins, A., 2021. Democratic leadership and organizational performance: the moderating effect of contingent reward. Management Research Review, 44(7), pp.1042-1058.

Jony, M.T.I., Alam, M.J., Amin, M.R. and Jahangir, M., 2019. The impact of autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles on the success of the organization: A study on the different popular restaurants of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Canadian Journal of Business and Information Studies, 1(6), pp.28-38.

Mansaray, H.E., 2019. The role of leadership style in organisational change management: a literature review. Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1), pp.18-31.

Putra, R., lima Krisna, N. and Ali, H., 2021. a Review Literature Employee Performance Model: Leadership Style, Compensation and Work Discipline. Dinasti International Journal of Management Science, 3(1), pp.56-66.

Wilson, D.E., 2020. Moving toward democratic-transformational leadership in academic libraries. Library Management, 41(8/9), pp.731-744.

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