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Journal Article Critique in Nursing Research

1- The aim of the study is to examine the facilitators and barriers in the transition phase of a student nurse to new graduate nurse. The transition phase plays a critical role in development of new graduate nurses professionals. There are several problems which are faced by nurses during the transition phase.

2- The research design used was both quantitative and qualitative design which acknowledged the authors to provide only finite results. The limited view of the issues was addressed well by using the research design. The authors applied a mixed methods approach which was designed to associate aspects of both qualitative and quantitative design. The research design used in the paper targets to determine newly graduated nurses experienced during the transition phase. The factors like job stress and job satisfaction are also identified with the help of group interviews taken. The successful transition effect was examined by identifying the facilitators and barriers in the transition phase (Matlhaba & Khunou, 2022).

3- The inclusion criteria was that the nurses who were working as nurses as their first job were included in the study. The nurses who had been working less than one year were also included. The language included was the native language used by the nurses. There was no age limit criteria for the nurses. The nurses were excluded who worked in different wards and in different occupations. The nurses who did not speak their native language were excluded. As there was no age limit therefore nurses from all age groups were included. The age criteria of the nurses was excluded from the paper.

4- The data was collected through focus group interviews with the help of the MP3 recorder. Before initiating the interviews there were some rules which were introduced. The team members observed the nurses and heard the answers with the help of the interview. The questionnaire was also conducted through which data of gender, orientation duration and employment duration was obtained. The qualitative and quantitative research design included the above mentioned data collection method. The mixed method study proved to be a good and useful way to study about the barriers and facilitators of the transition phase.

5- The authors used Casey- Fink graduate nurse experience survey in the quantitative phase. The authors also considered factors like self-efficacy, job stress, structural empowerment and job-satisfaction to analyse the effects on a successful transition. . The outcome measures tools which were used to collect data were divided into five sections. First is the experience of the graduate nurse during the transition phase. Second is job satisfaction. Third is procedures and skills that the nurse finds troublesome while performing. Fourth is demographic items which helps to illustrate the improved transitions . Last is the transition itself which indicates the barriers and facilitators. 

6- The qualitative and quantitative data was collected using various methods. The graphic data was collected by performing a questionnaire. The inclusion data was collected by analysing the sample size of the nurses. The collection was examined by using IBM SPSS Statistics which helped to verify the distribution of the variables obtained. The qualitative data was collected by conducting interviews which were examined by using transcripts in the interview. The data which was collected delivered the interventions which were customised for the newly graduated nurses which helped them in their transition phase.

7- Prior to beginning the study, the authors sought ethical approval from an appropriate institutional review board, demonstrating their dedication to upholding moral principles. Every participant gave their free and informed consent, guaranteeing that they understood the goals, methods, and possible dangers of the study and that they were participating willingly. The writers implemented strategies to safeguard the confidentiality and privacy of their subjects. In order to protect participant identity throughout data analysis and reporting, they anonymized the data by utilising IDs or pseudonyms. By preventing the identification of specific participants, this practise helps to protect their confidentiality. Additionally, the writers made sure that participation was completely voluntary and took into account any potential power dynamics. They provide information about recruitment strategies, which were probably created to avoid putting too much pressure on possible volunteers. Kim and Shin (2020) avoid any unwarranted exaggeration or misinterpretation of the data in their findings report, providing a fair and impartial depiction of the information. This method helps to maintain the study's ethical integrity by avoiding sensationalism or falsifying the results. Overall, by gaining informed consent, safeguarding participant privacy, resolving power relations, and upholding transparency and honesty in reporting, the authors' study complies with fundamental research ethics guidelines. All of these metrics point to a responsible and moral methodology for using human subjects in research (AlMekkawi et al., 2020).

8- The qualitative findings were in alignment with the quantitative results which articulated the facilitators and barriers of an outstanding transition. The qualitative phase findings included the promoter and obstacles in the transition phase. There were 22 new graduate nurses among which 16 females were there. The findings included two themes and eight sub themes. The barriers to successful transition of student nurse to newly graduate nurse were emotional difficulties, fears, excessive role expectations and workload. It was found that nursing stress was one of the serious unfavourable factors which was rationale with the previous studies conducted. The most regular stress was physical and emotional stress which was experienced in the first year of the nursing period. It has been observed that the nurses turnover is directly proportional to the level of stress they are experiencing. The authors also found that due to workload which consisted of broad caseloads with huge patients with acuity. The successful transition was supported by collective decisions taken by senior and graduate nurses. The nurse involved in the study agreed to the fact that there is requirement of a phased transition program which will help the transition to take place smoothly. The several strategies which will be involved in the transition will help the nurses to increase their confidence, critical thinking, expertise and decrease the anxiety and stress. For the successful transition of student nurses to graduate nurses informal and formal strategies both are required in order to strengthen the structural empowerment. This will help the nurses to enhance their self-efficacy and self confidence (Walton et al., 2018).

9- The recognition of the crucial role mentorship and support networks play during the transition phase is one important result. The study emphasises how mentoring can positively affect new nurses' ability to adjust to the clinical situation, gain confidence, and overcome obstacles. To establish a friendly environment and facilitate knowledge transfer, healthcare organisations should think about implementing structured mentorship programmes that connect experienced nurses with newbies. The study also emphasises how crucial feedback systems and communication are. Healthcare organisations ought to establish channels of communication that provide candid and productive exchanges between supervisors and recently graduated nurses. By addressing issues and difficulties early on, this can improve new nurses' job satisfaction and retention rates. Furthermore, the results underscore the significance of integrating experiential and pragmatic learning opportunities within nursing education (Bratajaya, 2021). The goal of nursing programmes should be to close the knowledge gap between theory and clinical practise, giving graduates the tools they need to efficiently navigate obstacles in the real world. The report also emphasises how important it is to foster a supportive workplace environment that values cooperation, teamwork, and respect for one another. Hospitals and other healthcare facilities should concentrate on creating a culture where newly hired nurses feel appreciated, empowered, and supported by their supervisors and peers. To sum up, the research results by Kim and Shin provide practical guidance for medical practise. Healthcare organisations can effectively support the smooth transition of newly graduated nurses by putting in place mentorship programmes, improving communication channels, improving nursing education curricula, and cultivating a positive work culture. These actions will ultimately improve patient care, nurse job satisfaction, and overall healthcare outcomes (Wakefield, 2018).

10- The study conducted by the authors focused on the barriers and facilitators in the transition of a student nurse to graduate nurse. The barriers identified in the paper helps the nurses to identify the problems like medical errors, bullying, job role expectations and then work on it accordingly. On the other hand the facilitators like interaction with the colleagues, self confidence and several phase transition programs help the nurses to identify their strength through which they make their transition smooth. The barriers and facilitators both are the strength of the article as they both help the nurse to make their transition phase easy and smooth (Croxon et al.,2018).

11- The limitation in the study is that there is no description of quantitative study done. There is only evidence of qualitative study alignment with quantitative study. This is a limitation in the study as the study would have been given more statistical background of the nurses in the transition phase. The quantitative study would have resulted in finding the results in a wider population. The explanation of the quantitative study would have given a clearer picture with the data of the nurses involved. The ethical considerations in the paper are not very well explained which makes it a bit difficult for the readers to comprehend the ethical principles (Woo et al., 2020).

12- The research design selected for the study was qualitative by using techniques like in-depth interviews. While a mixed methods strategy may yield more quantifiable data, this technique offers richer and more valuable insights into the experiences of newly graduated nurses. In the end, the research question, the objectives of the study, and the available resources determine if the chosen research design is appropriate. In this case the mixed methods technique was a good option as they selected both qualitative and quantitative data to better meet their study goal (Pasila et al., 2017).

The outcomes measured in the study were appropriate for the study conducted in the paper. The outcomes that were there in the paper included surveys, questionnaires, scales, interviews, or other methods of data collection. These outcomes are appropriate as these were aligning with the aim of the study. Nursing studies may use these metrics to assess the transition experiences of recently graduated nurses, including their perceived support, stress levels, communication abilities, and confidence. Particularly in nursing studies, the suitability, calibre, and testing of outcome measures are essential components of study technique. In order to properly capture the ideas of interest, researchers must make sure that the measures they use are in line with their goals and have undergone validity and reliability testing (van Rooyen et al., 2018).

The flow of the article was appropriate and the sequence of the article was also in correct order. The introduction was followed by the purpose of the study and the method design was well explained. In addition to this. The data analysis and ethical consideration was also mentioned. The barriers and facilitators were mentioned well in the paper which was explained well with respect to the nurses involved in the study. The discussion was also mentioned and explained well followed by limitation and conclusion of the study. The implication for nursing education was also well explained and was the last part of the paper. The conclusion drawn from this paper was reasonable and appropriate. The conclusion mentioned about the transition scores of the newly graduated nurses which was observed to be lower in the paper through the different studies that were conducted. The findings supported both qualitative and quantitative methods.

The implication mentioned in the paper is relevant and logically. The results observed by the authors are appropriate after the study. The issues which are the barrier in the transition phase. The implication of the nurse is also well described. The implications are based on practical practice. The challenges faced by the new student nurses transferring to graduated nurses in their transition phase. The gaps are also addressed in the paper by the authors which clearly mentioned about the new graduate nurses who have joined the profession within one year. The extensive study on geographical study should have been focused more. The implication for education of the nurses are relevant. The internships and residency program will help the nurses to boost their confidence and also help them to critically think. This will result in the reduction of the stress faced by them during the transition phase .


AlMekkawi, M., & El Khalil, R. (2020). New graduate nurses’ readiness to practise: a narrative literature review. Health Professions Education, 6(3), 304-316.

Bratajaya, C. N. A. (2021). Senior nurses’ perceptions of essential soft skills for novice nurses in a private hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia: A phenomenological study. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(4), 320.

Croxon, L., Deravin, L., & Anderson, J. (2018). Dealing with end of life—New graduated nurse experiences. Journal of clinical nursing, 27(1-2), 337-344.

Graf, A. C., Jacob, E., Twigg, D., & Nattabi, B. (2020). Contemporary nursing graduates’ transition to practice: A critical review of transition models. Journal of clinical nursing, 29(15-16), 3097-3107.

Matlhaba, K. L., & Khunou, S. H. (2022). Transition of graduate nurses from student to practice during the COVID-19 pandemic: Integrative review. International journal of Africa nursing sciences 17 , 100501.

Pasila, K., Elo, S., & Kääriäinen, M. (2017). Newly graduated nurses’ orientation experiences: A systematic review of qualitative studies. International journal of nursing studies, 71, 17-27.

van Rooyen, D. R., Jordan, P. J., ten Ham-Baloyi, W., & Caka, E. M. (2018). A comprehensive literature review of guidelines facilitating transition of newly graduated nurses to professional nurses. Nurse Education in Practice, 30, 35-41.

Wakefield, E. (2018). Is your graduate nurse suffering from transition shock?. Journal of Perioperative Nursing, 31(1), 47-50.

Walton, J. A., Lindsay, N., Hales, C., & Rook, H. (2018). Glimpses into the transition world: New graduate nurses' written reflections. Nurse Education Today, 60, 62-66.

Woo, M. W. J., & Newman, S. A. (2020). The experience of transition from nursing students to newly graduated registered nurses in Singapore. International journal of nursing sciences, 7(1), 81-90.

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