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Introduction

Malaysia is a committed nation towards development of an effective educational system for all the students. The key aim of the education system at Malaysia is to render equity and excellence to all the people desiring to learn. Equity refers to the equal opportunities for every learner to gain good education, while, excellence refers to the learning potential development of the learners to the highest level of achievement possible for the diversified individuals. This is because for the diversified group of students considering the progress of the physical, cognitive skills as well as emotional development the learning takes place at different pace and intensifies the barriers to cater the needs of learning especially for the gifted group of students. Based on the argument of Shaban (2021), gifted students are the ones holding unique traits and thoughts as well as learn thorough diversified techniques. These unique traits are however, known to affect the learning of language for them. Contextual to this aspect, the concerned argumentative paper focuses on presenting the supporting, counter and refutation of statements to help gain an in-depth and better understanding to the topic learning.

Background/problem statement

The issue of language learning challenges experienced by gifted students in Malaysia has emerged as a significant concern within the country's educational framework. Although these children have advanced cognitive skills in several domains, they frequently encounter difficulties in attaining proficiency in a second language. This matter poses a barrier to their overall academic advancement and restricts their capacity for inclusive international communication (Aziz et al. 2021). Despite several efforts to tackle the challenges associated with language acquisition, there exists a dearth of research that especially targets talented children in this domain. Hence, it is crucial to illuminate this subject matter and distinguish the distinct obstacles encountered by intellectually talented kids while acquiring a second language, with the aim of formulating effective tactics and interventions to improve their linguistic progression.

Key concepts

The key concepts of this study encompass the potential adverse effects of inclusive education on teacher performance and classroom activities. Additionally, it is posited that fostering a sense of harmony among both gifted and non-gifted students can facilitate teachers in fulfilling their duties effectively. Furthermore, it is suggested that teachers may encounter challenges in meeting the emotional and social needs of non-gifted students.

Investigation questions

The research questions are as follows:

How does inclusive education impact teacher’s performance and classroom activities?

  • What challenges are faced by teachers to guide gifted students?
  • What strategies are undertaken by teachers to guide the students effectively?
  • What are the effects of maintaining balance among gifted and non-gifted students?
  • What are the outcomes of maintaining harmony among gifted and non-gifted students?

Significance of the investigation

The investigation of language acquisition challenges among intellectually gifted children in Malaysia carries substantial significance for several reasons. Firstly, this research enables the identification and comprehension of the distinct obstacles encountered by gifted children in the acquisition of language skills, hence facilitating the development of customised instructional approaches to enhance their learning journey (Florian, 2019). Additionally, this study offers valuable insights into the determinants of language acquisition challenges within this particular demographic, hence facilitating the development of timely intervention and preventative measures. This research has the potential to contribute to the promotion of inclusive and equitable education by facilitating the provision of suitable assistance to talented students, enabling them to succeed in language acquisition and boosting their whole educational journey. In general, this study has promise for exerting a favourable influence on the language competency and academic performance of gifted kids in Malaysia.

Argumentation

a) Inclusive education can have a negative impact on teacher’s performance and classroom activities

Supporting statement

According to the supporting argument, inclusive education may actually have a detrimental effect on teachers' effectiveness and classroom activities. Initially, the task of accommodating children with varied learning needs poses significant challenges and demands a substantial investment of time for teachers. Frequently, educators are required to adapt the curriculum and lesson plans in order to accommodate the unique requirements of each student, leading to an augmented workload and heightened levels of stress (Bakar, 2017). This phenomenon has the potential to result in burnout and fatigue, eventually impacting their academic performance.

Furthermore, the inclusion of children with special needs in mainstream classes has the potential to adversely affect the educational atmosphere for their peers. Educators are required to allocate more attention and resources towards the provision of assistance for these pupils, inadvertently diverting focus from the needs of other students (Tohara, 2021). Those who are disregarded may get irritated and resentful as a result of this phenomenon, which might lead to a drop in their motivation and engagement. As a result, this might reduce the efficiency and effectiveness of the class as a whole.

As stated by Mustafa et al. (2020), insufficient specialised training and resources may also hinder the capacity of educators to administer inclusive classrooms effectively. Often, educators are not given the tools they need to effectively meet the varying requirements of children with disabilities and other special needs. Teachers' confidence and effectiveness may suffer as a result of their feeling unprepared and overworked. In addition, they may struggle to accommodate all pupils due to a lack of adequate resources and support services.

Inclusive education is deemed on the societal impartiality notion wherein all the learners are allowed to gain education with equal right of access and opportunity, irrespective of the disability and cognitive skills of the same. However, studies have shown that maximum number of educators across the globe including the Malaysian nation are raising their voices for the gifted children to be integrated into education with the facilities of regular non-inclusive classroom settings. Though the voice raising does not permanently assures that the desired policy will be accepted by the classroom teachers involved in the teaching process.

The above argument as supported by the study of Shaban (2021), stating that the behavioural attribute of the teachers in Malaysia is the most challenging hurdle towards rendering effective execution of inclusive language learning practices for the gifted students. The self-efficacy of the classroom teachers is however considered to be highly important for enhancing the gifted students’ learning and creation of a positive learning environment. But the actual case is that the non-acceptance of the classroom teachers in Malaysia for inclusive classroom settings to gifted students. The gifted students are known to possess behavioural disorders which is referred to as umbrella term including various conditions such as emotional disturbances. This behavioural disorders are termed not to be socially acceptable under certain circumstances. In this connection, studies have observed that the teachers in Malaysia finds it stressful to deal with these gifted students causing mental anxiety to them. In addition to this, the level of self-efficacy in the Malaysian teachers’ decreases when it comes to including gifted children in inclusive classrooms. This, in turn, results to decrease in the confidence level to teach and directly creating a negative impact on the performance rendered by them.

Counter argument

The counterargument that inclusive education can boost teachers' productivity and engagement in the classroom must be taken into account. Advocates of inclusive education stress its positive effects on students' capacity for compassion, open-mindedness, and mutual respect. According to the World Bank Group, the importance of equality and inclusion in education cannot be overstated as they are crucial for achieving shared prosperity and sustainable development (Mezzanotte, 2022). Educational disparities are a significant catalyst for economic inequality, both at the intra-national and international levels. The absence of fundamental education significantly diminishes the prospects of persons belonging to the lower 40% of a country's income distribution to achieve success within a globalised economy. According to the World Bank World Development Report 2012, the promotion of equitable and inclusive education is seen as a significant catalyst for fostering a more just society (Mezzanotte, 2022).

Students are more likely to exhibit courteous and inclusive classroom dynamics if they are exposed to diversity at a young age (Hayes & Bulat, 2019). This may help make the classroom a more enjoyable place for everyone and foster a feeling of community. In addition, having students with impairments in a classroom might improve opportunities for peer teaching and group work. In this way, students develop a feeling of responsibility and collaboration as they assist and support one another. Aloizou et al. (2021) have suggested that all children may benefit from a more welcoming and accepting atmosphere like this in the classroom. In addition, educators in inclusive settings can experiment with and refine a broader range of methods and techniques for reaching their students. They have to be more versatile and adaptive, which is good for their development as professionals. Because of the wide range of students it serves, inclusive education encourages teachers to get creative in their methods of instruction.

In the critical argument of Ghoshal (2020), inclusive education helps in ensuring that the ability and performance of the teachers is improved and upskilled. This is because they attain the learning and experience to teach the specially-abled children as well. Inclusive education is a mirage that helps the teacher work with justice to all and thus implement a better and equal learning environment for all people seeking education. Inclusive education to gifted children should not hamper the performance of the teachers, but should enhance the same by ensuring that lack of language education is not hampering anyone to learn and live and thus gain a livelihood for themselves. Inspired with the help of the social constructivist approaches the teachers preparing themselves with proper training and understanding about how gifted students should be treated along with the regular students will ensure that they are not beings stressed but endorse better career opportunities. Rather than focusing on the negativities, the teachers should prioritise their focus upon developing learning activities and approaches that would work towards rendering specialised learning environment and would help both the gifted and regular students to involve into needed education facilities.

Refutation

However, it is crucial to respond to the opposing viewpoint by highlighting the possible adverse effects of inclusive education on teachers' efficacy and classroom dynamics. Although it is crucial to instil empathy and foster collaboration among students, it is critical to acknowledge that instructors frequently lack the required resources and face significant challenges in adequately supporting students with various needs (Aloizou et al. 2021). The constrained availability of resources and absence of specialised training impede their capacity to adequately address the unique requirements of every student within the classroom setting. Moreover, the presence of irritation and anger among students who perceive themselves as being neglected has the potential to destabilise the overall dynamics within the classroom, so limiting the achievement of desired learning results.

b) Maintaining harmony among the students who are gifted and non-gifted will help

teachers work in a required manner

It is evident from the extant research that language learning difficulties among gifted students in Malaysia have become a major concern which requires further attention in the context of education (Zakaria et al. 2021). In the current times, it has been observed that gifted students who are known for their exceptional abilities and aptitude are often challenged with unique obstacles while talking about language learning. In addition, they often face difficulties in communication skills as well. Under such circumstances, the study has considered providing greater insights into effective practices such as maintaining harmony among the students who are gifted and non-gifted highlighting the argument and counter-argument. 

Supporting statement

Empirical studies on special education have shown that maintaining harmony among gifted and non-gifted students is fundamental in terms of creating a conducive and inclusive learning environment that benefits all. In this regard, it has been observed that when students with different abilities coexist harmoniously, it plays an important role in terms of fostering a learning environment for greater learning outcomes. In particular, it has been seen in empirical research that ghosted students with advanced knowledge and skills, can serve as role models for their peers. In addition, they can help by enriching the classroom experience as well. 

On a similar note, gifted students can also play an important role by serving as peer educators within a harmonious classroom environment (Yusof, Ismail, & Radzi, 2022). In particular, they can help non-gifted students navigate the complexities of language learning. For instance, they can bridge the knowledge gap by explaining concepts, sharing insights, and offering support. It can in turn be crucial in terms of fostering a sense of belonging among students of different abilities. As a result, it would be essential to foster collaboration and reduce the potential for gifted students to feel isolated. 

Counter argument

While talking about creating a harmonious learning environment, it is important to note that gifted students may feel burdened by the accountability of assisting the non-gifted students from the classroom (Aziz et al. 2021). Moreover, the responsibility of educating others can also be perceived as a limitation for their own learning process resulting in a poor education experience. It can in turn hinder their academic growth as well. In this context, empirical studies have also argued that creating harmony between these two groups might be challenging to achieve in action. 

Refutation

The overall discussion has led the study to conclude that there are potential challenges associated with gifted students helping non-gifted students. However, this argument can potentially ignore the effective benefits linked with collaborative learning and mentorship. For instance, helping non-gifted students with explaining a topic can in turn be crucial for the gifted student to develop an understanding of the topic in a better way. Therefore, it can be said that educating the non-gifted students reinforces the learning process of the gifted students. In addition, it strengthens their ability to comprehend the material more effectively. 

On a similar note, the argument also assumes that gifted students are required to take all the responsibilities of educating their non-gifted peers. In this regard, effective classroom management can play an important role in distributing the mentorship role evenly among different students. It would be effective in terms of ensuring that the burden of educating others does not provide entirely on the gifted students. 

c) Teachers are unable to meet the emotional and social needs of the non-gifted students

Supporting statement

In the current times, classroom dynamics have significantly transformed along with advanced teaching methodologies. Under such circumstances, teachers often face difficulties in staying aligned with the emotional and social needs of non-gifted students within the classroom (Zakaria et al. 2021). In particular, it has been observed that gifted students with their unique learning pace and abilities, can inadvertently create a learning environment within the classroom. It can on the other hand make the non-gifted students feel overlooked. It can also result in feelings of frustration, and self-doubt, including decreased self-esteem among the non-gifted students. It is evident from the empirical research that this has become a major concern in the context of education in Malaysia where the non-gifted and gifted students are allowed to learn together. Based on this discussion it can be said that these emotions of the non-gifted students are required to be addressed critically in order to maintain their overall educational experience. 

Counter argument

On a similar note, it is important to acknowledge that teachers within a classroom where both gifted and non-gifted students coexist may face diverse challenges (Kamis et al. 2021). For instance, the teachers may be overwhelmed by the diverse students they need to cater to. While talking about the teaching experience, the teachers can not be expected to provide personalised teaching support to every student in the classroom. Therefore, it can be said that the responsibility to address the emotional needs of each student in the classroom can be hectic for a teacher. 

Refutation

The overall discussion has led the study to conclude that teachers often face multiple challenges while dealing with a large and diverse classroom. On the other hand, it is important to emphasise the emotional and social needs of all students, including non-gifted students, which is crucial to creating a conducive and inclusive learning environment. Under such circumstances, failure to address these needs can lead to disengagement among non-gifted students. This can, on the other hand, result in a reduced level of student participation in classroom activities leading to poor educational performance. Based on this, it can be concluded that such consequences have a significant impact on the overall learning atmosphere within the classroom. It can also hinder the effectiveness of teaching resulting in poor learning outcomes.

Implications of the argument for research

The study has provided an in-depth understanding of the learning and language difficulties among gifted students in Malaysia. However, the study also includes some of the major implications as well. For instance, the arguments and counter-arguments present in this study emphasise the need for further research into effective strategies for maintaining harmony among diverse student populations. In addition, it focuses on the need to address the emotional and social needs of non-gifted students. Therefore, it can be said that future research on this topic must consider exploring and explaining classroom interventions including effective teaching practices, and policies that support a more inclusive learning environment for all students.

Conclusion

It has been found from the overall analysis that inclusive education is both positive and negative for the students but the teachers face various challenges while dealing with a wide range of students with different demands and requirements. In the case of maintaining harmony among the gifted and non-gifted students, it can be said that inclusivity helps both kinds of students to become more collaborative but the gifted students can feel a sense of burden if they are given the responsibilities to guide the non-gifted students. Including both gifted and non-gifted students puts immense pressure on teachers and it becomes tough for them to provide customised guidance to each student. Thus, the teachers become unable to meet the emotional and social needs of the non-gifted students.References

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