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Part B - Theoretical Rationale

The learners attending the educational are registered nurse; however, there are several age groups of the registered nurse from enrolled nurses to freshers. Based on the experience of the nurses from different age groups and work experience, the present learning outcome will be based on how to insert indwelling catheters on different patients safely. Moreover, secure IDC (Indwelling Catheterisation) and assess patency will be analysed. Based on the learning-based outcomes, the trouble shoot should complications arise.

Many employees mastered catheterisation procedures in their early employment, therefore there was no need for a formal evaluation of skills and knowledge. This may have contributed to some previous and now obsolete duties still being performed. The evidence supporting best practice in the management of indwelling catheters is reflected in national and international recommendations, which have recently undergone a full revamp. This article examines common procedures and best practice information to aid in the safe and effective administration of these necessary but frequently dangerous devices (Holroyd, 2019).

Bladder catheters are employed to collect urine during measurement or for urinary drainage. Catheters are appropriate in many clinical conditions, although they are commonly used without valid indication or for far longer than necessary. External sheath (i.e., condom) catheters, suprapubic catheterization, intermittent catheterization, and, in rare circumstances, supportive care with protective clothing should be considered as alternatives to indwelling urethral catheterization (Schaeffer et al., 2017). However, several challenges are faced during the indwelling catheterisation process. Therefore, the session takes into account generational variation in order to ensure the coherence of the material presented by utilizing teaching and learning resources that are not entirely reliant on technology, such as True/False cards and summary handouts (Tribler et al., 2018). Cultural issues will be handled via culturally appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication (Henderson and Barker, 2018). The session's goals include presenting the case and clinical results, encouraging open discussion, sharing prior experiences, and brainstorming about offering services about indwelling urethral catheterization.

This learning session may provide an opportunity for self-reflection toward continuing professional development, which is an annual requirement from the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia for registration standards along with promoting collaborative practice as well as developing respectful partnerships with work colleagues (NMBA, 2018).

Two theories, Constructivism theory and Knowles Adult learning theory are used for the learning plans. Learners in constructivist learning theory practice are self-directed and construct knowledge from personal experiences, with the instructor serving as a mentor. Therefore, from the learner’s perspective, constructivist learning theory will direct the learning towards personal experience of the learners and teaching from the instructor (Burhanuddin et al., 2021).

It is believed that attendees will be self-directed, have some amount of expertise, be active learners, and have an inquiring intellect while using Knowles' adult education model (Bierema, 2019). Given that this is a necessary in-service, attendees will be expected to participate actively and confidently share any prior experiences. Because the in-services are typically run by midwives rather than clinical midwifery facilitators, attendees have a respectful attitude toward the presenter, especially since they are volunteering their own time to prepare, research, and rehearse the presentation. The presenter then temporarily becomes a clinical authority on the topic, providing an opportunity to express their passion for safe and competent midwifery care.

To begin, Knowles theory emphasizes that adult learners are self-directed, have real-world experience to draw on as a resource, and are most interested in learning subjects that have an immediate influence on their employment. The session outcomes are clearly specified in the opening, and discussion about previous experience with nasogastric tubes is encouraged, in order to put the planned learning into perspective for the students and ensure optimal involvement from them (Twaddell, 2019).

Adult learning requires the use of the concepts of constructive alignment to assist learners achieve the best potential learning results, with the education session suited to what the students must comprehend rather than whatever the teacher has to teach. The learning goals are all activity-based, and Blooms Taxonomy principles were used to clearly identify what the learners needed to be able to perform, giving them the best chance of success (Gul et al., 2020).

Having a variety of learning media, including PowerPoint and practical experience, enables for optimal learning chances since it emphasizes that individuals learn in different ways and that a variety of learning experiences leads to higher learning results. Appropriate assessment at the end of the session is also an important technique in adult learning, and Winget and Persky, 2020 consider it as crucial to the effective dissemination of knowledge to learners. 

The PowerPoint presentation will be peer assessed as the first form of evaluation for this teaching plan. This would enable a competent peer, such as a nurse educator, to review the session and provide feedback, potentially improving the quality of education provided. Filming the session enables for self-assessment, where the participant may make judgments about how well they meet the criteria, potentially leading to improved performance in subsequent sessions (Holdsworth et al., 2020).

Finally, providing informal feedback all through the practical session and using the evaluation form at the end of the meetings to assess the knowledge and skills they have gained provides students with prompt feedback that they were can use to identify remaining knowledge gaps and to improve future learning.

 An hour-long session in the administration of secure IDC is a successful technique to facilitate this education since it is low-cost, uses pre-existing training equipment, requires little time from participants, and can be reproduced by other facilitators in the future.

This essay includes a teaching plan and theoretical justification for the IDC that will include insertion and management teaching session. This is a vital skill for the intensive care nurses who will be attending this course. Using learning theories and teaching principles, a constructively aligned teaching plan that is low cost and easy to execute in the intensive care setting was developed. To successfully connect the instructional and instructional elements to the intended learning outcomes, the resources chosen must be topic-relevant, user-friendly, and reusable if the presentation will be repeated in the future.


Bierema, L. L. (2019). Adult learning theories and practices. Connecting Adult Learning and Knowledge Management: Strategies for Learning and Change in Higher Education and Organizations, 3-25.

Burhanuddin, N. A. N., Ahmad, N. A., Said, R. R., & Asimiran, S. (2021). Learning theories: Views from behaviourism theory and constructivism theory. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 10(1), 85-98.

Chuang, S. (2021). The applications of constructivist learning theory and social learning theory on adult continuous development. Performance Improvement, 60(3), 6-14.

Gul, R., Kanwal, S., & Khan, S. S. (2020). Preferences of the teachers in employing revised blooms taxonomy in their instructions. sjesr, 3(2), 258-266.

Henderson, S., & Barker, M. (2018). Developing nurses’ intercultural/intraprofessional communication skills using the Excellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Social Interaction Maps. Journal of clinical nursing, 27(17-18), 3276-3286.

Holdsworth, L. M., Safaeinili, N., Winget, M., Lorenz, K. A., Lough, M., Asch, S., & Malcolm, E. (2020). Adapting rapid assessment procedures for implementation research using a team-based approach to analysis: a case example of patient quality and safety interventions in the ICU. Implementation Science, 15, 1-12.

Holroyd, S. (2019). Indwelling urinary catheterisation: evidence-based practice. Journal of Community Nursing, 33(5).

Schaeffer, A. J., Richie, J. P., & Chen, W. (2017). Placement and management of urinary bladder catheters in adults. UpToDate. Waltham (MA): UpToDate.

Tribler, S., Brandt, C. F., Fuglsang, K. A., Staun, M., Broebech, P., Moser, C. E., ... & Jeppesen, P. B. (2018). Catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with intestinal failure receiving home parenteral support: risks related to a catheter-salvage strategy. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 107(5), 743-753.

Twaddell, J. W. (2019). Educating parents about vitamin K in the newborn using Knowles' theory of adult learning principles as a framework. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 42(2), 205-207.

Winget, M., & Persky, A. M. (2022). A practical review of mastery learning. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 86(10), ajpe8906.          


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