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The assessment report on the Kadushin model of supervision is summarised in this essay. The essay centres around the critical parts of the model, including its definition, the commitments of Albert Kadushin, the historical backdrop of the model, the meaning of contracting, and the learning apparatuses used inside the model (O'Donoghue et al. 2021). The comprehensive framework known as the Kadushin model emphasizes the educational, supportive, and managerial aspects of supervision (Basa, 2017). Understanding and applying this model can incredibly upgrade the administrative cycle, advancing proficient development, and supporting the prosperity of supervisees. The Kadushin model and its significance in supervision are succinctly summarised in this essay.


The Kadushin Model of Supervision is based on a theory created in Bethel, Maine's National Training Laboratory. The concept was created to improve training efficacy and supervisor learning chances (Mo et al. 2021). The model provides a framework for monitoring the performance of supervisees as well as improving abilities in supervision and assessment. The Kadushin Model of Supervision teaches supervisors how to affect the performance of their students by building abilities in four critical areas: problem identification and analysis, problem solutions, performance appraisal, and evaluation and development (Pawar and Anscombe, 2022). Supervisors learn the four skills through time-bound tasks such as monitoring behaviour, analysing behaviour, finding problems to address, and cooperating with supervisees to provide solutions to problems.

Albert Kadushin

Albert Kadushin, (1922 to 1997), was a prominent figure in the field of social work who contributed significantly to supervision practice. With a distinguished career as a professor at the School of Social Work at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Kadushin's work focused on developing supervision as a more effective and encouraging way for social workers and other similar professions to grow professionally.

His one crucial contribution, "Supervision in Social Work," was first published in 1976 and was revised for subsequent editions in later times (Glassburn et al. 2019). This original work provided a detailed approach to understand and performing compelling supervision practices. Kadushin's model of supervision focused on educative, and administrative capabilities, perceiving the significance of cooperation, reflection, and continuous improvement in the managerial relationship.

All through his career, Kadushin maintained a crucial role in defining the field of supervision. His contribution continues to have a critical impact, providing guidance and insight to practitioners and supervisors in a diverse profession. The contributions to supervision made by him have greatly extended his knowledge and comprehension and will continue to have an impact on the field of social work.

History of the Kadushin Model

The "Kadushin supervision model" was designed during the mid-20th century in response to a growing awareness of the need for organised and systematic approaches to supervision in social work. Albert Kadushin developed his model after extensive research and field experience. The model originated with the publication of Kadushin's seminal article, "Supervision in Social Work," in 1976 (Glassburn et al. 2019). This book marked a significant milestone in the field of supervision by developing a comprehensive framework for effective supervisory practices. The Kadushin model achieved reputation and appeal outside of the field of social work as its notions and concepts are linked with other professions such as counselling, psychiatry, and education.

Kadushin Model

The “Kadushin Model of Supervision” is considered among the most important contexts for social work education, and also for public workplace supervision and other forms of practice in a public organisation (Australian Learning and Teaching Council, 2010). To gain specified personal and professional objectives, management requires that an employee delegate tasks to another employee, whether they are in mthe same or lower positions (O'Donoghue et al. 2021). The supervision model proposed by Alfred Kadushin includes diverse features related to supervision. In supervision, for example, the model provides educational, supporting, administrative, and mediation operations. According to O'Donoghue et al (2018), sufficient supervision ensures that employees are provided with a secure work setting by the supervisor, which allows supervisees to practise and reflect on their capabilities and, as a result, will allow them to develop the skills and knowledge needed to improve their performance.

(Source: O'Donoghue et al. 2021)

Educational Perspective

The instructional role of Kadushin's Model, as per Bayley et al. (2023), mandates that worker development should be developed to better the way they evoke their maximum potential and skill improvement. From the perspective of academic supervision, the supervisor's task is to guarantee that the supervisee is taught the task details requirements for workers to learn the essential knowledge and abilities to perfect their performance (Tropman, 2022). The educational role of supervision in social work is to help the supervisee train and achieve enough integrated competencies and skills that are essential to enable their personal and professional growth.

Supportive Functions

Supervision's supporting function is centred on establishing an enabling atmosphere in which the Supervisee may harmoniously collaborate with the supervisor to enrich personal and professional growth. According to Liou (2020), the supervisor's supporting function comprises assisting the supervisee in coping with any stressful situations, such as ensuring they support the Supervisee in strengthening their abilities and self-awareness to build ethical choices throughout practice. As indicated by O'Donoghue et al (2018), supportive supervision empowers both the manager and the supervisor to establish an empowering climate for both professional and personal growth, which is basic to permitting the supervisee to conquer their difficulties through the supervisor's direction and strong obligations.

Administrative function

The administrative tasks of Supervision are focused on helping supervisors and supervisees to adhere to the specified policy guidelines to guarantee that the practice is dependent on successful service delivery that adheres to the rules. According to Livholts et al. (2019), social work supervisors have a critical administrative role in improving policies that boost supervisee welfare and offer advocacy following social work norms. Administratively, the supervisor is responsible for ensuring that they offer and improve a healthy working connection with the monitored persons for the supervisees to develop efficiently. Supervisors, in contrast, can make administrative policy recommendations that can be crucial in advancing their social work practice.

Mediation function

The mediation supervisory role, according to Erera and Lazar (1994), is crucial in connecting the monitored persons with the organisational structure. An effective mediation supervisor should recognise the general source of stress for the supervisee and be able to intervene with higher executive authorities to resolve the monitored people's issues. Supervisees who perform mediation functions might argue at the organisational level for the need for reform in policymaking (Erera and Lazar, 1994). For example, they can campaign for social work policies that have a direct influence on their practice to guarantee that they can create concepts that are critical for personal and professional growth.


In the Kadushin model, contracting is an essential part of the supervision process. The supervisee and supervisor must reach a formal agreement through negotiation and drafting. Their supervisory association is covered by the contract which creates clear expectations and boundaries. The preliminary stages of supervision usually mark the beginning of the contracting procedure (Kadushin and Harkness, 2014). During this phase, the supervisor and supervisee take part in open discussions to evaluate their tasks, obligations, objectives, and specific requirements or inclinations. They collaborate to define the purpose of supervision, projected outcomes, and the specific focal areas (Kadushin and Harkness, 2014). The contract denotes the criteria of supervision, like the frequency and length of supervision sessions, communication modes, and confidentiality agreements. In addition, the contract discusses any ethical or professional rules that must be observed during the monitoring process, and also logistical considerations like availability and timing.

Contracting out supervision encourages honesty, accountability, and a collective approach. It permits both stakeholders to align their goals, clear up any potential misconceptions, and create trust and respect for one another (Pawar and Anscombe, 2022). The contract offers direction and structure to the supervisory relationship throughout the supervising process. However, the contract is not set in stone, and it may be updated or revised as the monitoring develops.

Learning Tools

The Kadushin supervision methodology integrates a wide range of teaching and learning techniques to help supervisees grow and develop. Process records, care plans, and diaries, for example, provide for in-depth investigation and analysis of individual instances or processes. Supervisors can give feedback and direction based on real-life interactions using observation methods such as modelling, direct observation, and videotaping. Role plays, games, and simulations promote active learning and skill development. Using resources like the internet, videos, articles, books, and policy papers improves information acquisition and fosters critical thinking. Visits to agencies, courts and tribunals, consultations, committee meetings, and contact with persons and groups expose students to a variety of situations, views, and professional networks. Overall, these teaching and learning tools provide a comprehensive and dynamic approach to supervision, increasing the supervisory relationship and supporting supervisees in growing and becoming proficient.


In conclusion, the "Kadushin Model of Supervision" offers a systematic approach for supervisors to use during providing positive feedback to their interiors to boost their performance. This paradigm, however, is only beneficial if the supervisor is aware of the alterations that influence one's performance and capabilities. The model, therefore, assists a supervisor who is unfamiliar with conducting training sessions. In this instance, the supervisee requires assistance from an experienced individual to work appropriately and improve their talents (Glassburn et al. 2019). As a consequence, certain experienced supervisors can be able to outline constructive feedback by viewing and recognising complexities affecting trainee performance and providing contingency plans. Supervisors with training programme experience, on the other hand, can assist supervisees by planning and organising training programmes. As a result, performance will be more effective and efficient.


Australian Learning and Teaching Council (2010). A Guide to Supervision in Social Work Field Education

Basa, V., 2017. Models of supervision in therapy, brief defining features. European Journal of counselling theory, research and Practice, 1(4), pp.1-5.

Bayley, K., Trembath, D. and Leif, E., 2023. Supervision for Aspiring Behaviour Analysts in Australia: An Exploration of Current Practices, Challenges, and Opportunities. Behaviour Analysis in Practice, 16(2), pp.587-603.

Erera, I.P. and Lazar, A., 1994. Operationalizing Kadushin's model of social work supervision. Journal of Social Service Research, 18(3-4), pp.109-122.

Glassburn, S., McGuire, L.E. and Lay, K., 2019. Reflection as self-care: models for facilitative supervision. Reflective Practice, 20(6), pp.692-704.

Kadushin, A. and Harkness, D., 2014. Supervision in Social Work, 5e. Columbia University Press.

Liou, H.C., 2020. Review Essay on Charles Kadushin 2012. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings.

Livholts, M.B., Carolyn Noble, Professor of Social Work, Australian College of Applied Psychology, Sydney, Australia.

Mo, K.Y.H., O’Donoghue, K., Wong, P.Y.J. and Tsui, M.S., 2021. The historical development of knowledge in social work supervision: Finding new directions from the past. International Social Work, 64(2), pp.187-200.

O'Donoghue, K. and Engelbrecht, L. eds., 2021. The Routledge International Handbook of Social Work Supervision. Routledge.

O'Donoghue, K., Wong Yuh Ju, P. and Tsui, M.S., 2018. Constructing an evidence-informed social work supervision model. European Journal of Social Work, 21(3), pp.348-358.

Pawar, M. and Anscombe, A.W., 2022. Concepts and Theories Employed in Supervision. In Enlightening Professional Supervision in Social Work: Vices and Virtues of Supervisors (pp. 171-192). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Tropman, J.E., 2022. Managerial Supervision. In Encyclopedia of Social Work.

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