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Screening

According to CASP, the aim and objective of the article is clearly stated. The article focuses on the lived experiences of breast cancer survivors. In addition to this a qualitative research methodology was appropriate for the study of the article. The article clearly mentioned the perceptions and experiences of breast cancer survivors. On the basis of the screening the paper is worth reading as it clearly mentioned the aim and has also used an appropriate research methodology.

Research Problem And its Significance

The study's research problem is to investigate the lived experiences of individuals who have survived breast cancer. In order to understand the emotional, physical, and psychological aspects that determine a survivor's trajectory, the researchers set out to explore the complex and multidimensional journeys of those who have fought breast cancer. The research problem holds significance due to the deep influence that breast cancer has on individuals' lives and the necessity of comprehending the comprehensive experiences of survivors in order to improve the quality of treatment and support provided to them. Breast cancer is a common, drastically changing disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The disease still has a significant emotional and mental cost, even though medical progress has increased survival rates (Feng et al., 2018). The importance of the research problem arises from the understanding that living with breast cancer is a complicated life journey that involves managing a variety of physical symptoms, emotional difficulties, and social adaptations, rather than just a medical occurrence. This study recognises the distinctive stories of survivors by exploring their lived experiences and illuminating their challenges, victories, and coping strategies.Repercussions for healthcare professionals, legislators, and support systems are extensive when it comes to comprehending the complex experiences of breast cancer survivors. This study's conclusions can help design specialised therapies, support systems, and medical plans that take into account the various needs of survivors (Olsson Möller et al., 2020).

Research Design

The present study utilises a qualitative phenomenological research style for its research methodology. To learn more about and comprehend the lived experiences of breast cancer survivors, the researchers conducted in-depth interviews with them. The goal of qualitative phenomenology as a research approach is to understand the subjective viewpoints, feelings, and perceptions of participants while also trying to extract the essence of human experiences.

Twelve breast cancer survivors participated in in-person interviews with the researchers for this study. It was intentional to choose volunteers who represented a range of ages, disease stages, and treatment regimens. The participants were able to express their ideas, emotions, and personal stories about their experiences with breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survival since the interviews were in-depth and open-ended.

In this case, the goal of the qualitative phenomenological research was to obtain a thorough knowledge of the ways in which breast cancer survivors deal with the difficulties and complexities of their journey. Through direct interaction and story sharing, the researchers hope to capture the complex and multifaceted nature of survivorship that may be difficult to convey using only quantitative approaches. The goal of the research methodology was to present a comprehensive picture of the survivors' experiences by illuminating their emotional responses, coping mechanisms, networks of support, and personal development over the course of their cancer journey. The research study that is presented in the information that has been provided is a qualitative study that uses the phenomenological approach particularly.

Study Characteristics

Sample Size

Twelve breast cancer survivors made up the study's sample.

Inclusion Requirements

The participants were likely survivors of breast cancer who were at the posttreatment stage of their journey after receiving treatment.

Exclusion Criteria

No information regarding potential study participants' exclusions is provided in the material.

Demographic Details

The age range of the participants was 50–69 years old. The individuals had breast cancer in a range of stages, from Stage I to Stage III.

Data Collection

In-depth, open-ended in-person interviews were used to gather the data. The discussion, which focused on the participants' experiences, feelings, coping mechanisms, and perceptions throughout their breast cancer journey, was led by an interview guide.

Data Analysis

In accordance with Colaizzi's guidelines, a manual theme analysis was used to analyse the data. Reading and rereading the participant descriptions, locating meaning units, deriving meanings, and grouping them into conceptual clusters were all part of the analytical process. On the basis of these clusters, the researchers went on to create themes and subthemes.

The study found five main themes: (a) feeling upset; (b) accepting medical interventions and looking for substitutes; (c) enduring adversity; (d) growing stronger; and (e) learning to be grateful.

Findings

Within each of the recognised themes, the findings contained thorough accounts of the participant experiences,

Appropriateness of Research Design (Qualitative technique)

Phenomenology, in particular, is a qualitative technique that is very suitable for the research topic that this study is trying to solve (Alhazmi & Kaufmann, 2022).Exploring people's subjective sensations, perceptions, and comprehension of an event is the main goal of phenomenology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feelings, ideas, and coping mechanisms of breast cancer survivors in order to gain a deeper understanding of their lived experiences. The researchers were able to fully explore the phenomenon from the perspectives of the participants by capturing the richness and depth of these experiences through the use of a phenomenological technique.

Recruitment

The article leaves out important information regarding the hiring procedure. Nonetheless, a sample of twelve breast cancer survivors participated in the study.The selection process is consistent with qualitative research, in which the detailed descriptions and insights provided by participants are essential to capture the core of the phenomenon under study.

Ethics

Although not specifically addressed in the text, ethical standards are crucial to qualitative research. Given the delicate subject matter (experiences with breast cancer) and the possible emotional toll on participants, one would think that the researchers would have taken precautions to guarantee participant confidentiality, informed consent, and moral conduct throughout the investigation. This entails getting participants' informed consent, keeping information private, and attending to any possible emotional discomfort.

Data collecting

Guided by an interview guide, data collecting consisted of in-depth, open-ended in-person interviews. In-person interviews provide participants the chance to talk about their experiences in great detail and in detail, which helps the researchers get a deeper understanding of their feelings, ideas, and coping strategies. While allowing participants to freely share their experiences, the inclusion of an interview guide offered structure.

Reflexivity

An important component of qualitative research is reflexivity, or the critical self-awareness of researchers' own biases and prejudices. Although reflexivity is not mentioned specifically in the text, it is important to take it into account in order to preserve the validity and integrity of the study's conclusions (Haynes, 2017). Through reflexivity, researchers can evaluate their assumptions critically, identify possible impacts, and actively work to reduce them. By protecting the accuracy of the participant voices, this procedure raises the study's credibility and dependability.

Reflexivity also promotes transparency in the research process, making it easier for readers to comprehend the role of the researchers and their possible influence on the results (Sirris, 2022). Researchers show their dedication to doing thorough and moral research by addressing reflexivity, which advances a more genuine comprehension of the real-life experiences of breast cancer survivors.

Data Analysis

 To find patterns and themes in the gathered data, this study's data analysis process included the application of thematic analysis, a popular qualitative technique. The investigators employed a methodical approach to extract significant revelations from the interviews:

Gaining Familiarity with Data: In order to obtain a comprehensive grasp of the experiences and perspectives of the participants, the researchers started by thoroughly reading through the interview transcripts. Coding involved identifying and emphasising in the transcripts meaning units, which were words and sentences pertaining to the topic of interest. They put similar ideas in groups. Researchers created preliminary themes that encapsulated the main points of the participants' descriptions using the codes they had found. We honed these topics and arranged them into groups of linked concepts. As the analysis went on, the researchers separated the meanings of the statements and phrases, leading to the creation of abstract themes at a higher level. This led to the creation of clusters within these topics, which made up a thematic map. Using the data gathered, the researchers clarified and enhanced the emerging themes to make sure the themes appropriately reflected the experiences of the participants. After deliberating, the study team came to a final thematic map consensus that faithfully depicted the participants' experiences as breast cancer survivors.

Bracketing the researchers' understanding of the phenomenon helped to reduce any preconceptions that might have affected the investigation. To improve validity and trustworthiness, an oncology nurse examined the transcript and results. In order to confirm the veracity of the participants' accounts, a preliminary results sharing process known as "member checking" was also carried out. This study's thematic analysis approach is suitable for qualitative research aiming to comprehend participants' experiences.data. The methodical process of coding, abstraction, and topic development improves the analysis's rigour and the validity of its conclusions.The researchers made sure that the richness of the survivors' experiences was sufficiently documented by employing thematic analysis, which added to a thorough and intricate knowledge of their trip.

Findings/ Results

Five overarching themes emerged from the study, which captured the lived experiences of those who have survived breast cancer: "Being Distressed," "Accepting Treatments and Seeking Alternative Treatments," "Going Through Difficult Times," "Becoming a Stronger Person," and "Becoming Thankful." The aforementioned themes shed light on the distinct phases of the survivors' journey, ranging from the first distress following their diagnosis to the acceptance process and discovering thankfulness for their experiences. The study's conclusions offer insightful information about the particular difficulties and coping strategies faced by breast cancer survivors in Thailand. Themes derived from the data provide a thorough grasp of the physical, psychological, and emotional components of the path of survivorship. The study, which supports earlier research findings, emphasises the patients' first shock and distress following diagnosis.

This study is important because it adds to our knowledge of how cancer survivors cope with their experiences. The utilisation of thematic analysis methodology facilitated a comprehensive examination of the participants' accounts, unveiling the multifaceted character of their reactions to the ailment. The research also illuminated the use of complementary therapies in the absence of official medical approval, highlighting the extent to which survivors may go in their quest for recovery. A comparison of the results with the body of research highlights the features that are common to many cultural situations. Studies done in different nations have revealed similar themes, pointing to the common experiences of breast cancer survivors everywhere. This gives the current study's findings more validity.The study's conclusions can help medical practitioners in the field of healthcare by directing them in customising therapies and support to meet the unique needs of breast cancer survivors. The study also creates opportunities for future investigation by promoting the examination of environmental and cultural elements that can affect survivors' actual experiences in various geographic locations.

Relevance to Contemporary Nursing Policy and Practice

Importance for Nursing Practise and Policy:

The study's conclusions highlight the significance of patient-centered care, which is the cornerstone of modern nursing practise everywhere. Nurses can customise their interventions to meet the specific needs of breast cancer survivors by having a thorough grasp of the many emotional, physical, and psychosocial issues they confront.

Inclusive Approach

The study's conclusions highlight the need of taking patients' cultural and personal settings into account. Given the multicultural nature of Australia and the range of communities it serves, it is imperative to comprehend the effects of cultural beliefs, alternative therapies, and coping methods.

Psychosocial Support

The research clarifies the mental and emotional anguish that survivors go through. When it comes to giving patients psychosocial support both during and after cancer treatment, nurses are essential. The results emphasise the necessity of teaching nurses how to communicate effectively, actively listen, and offer emotional support.

Applicability to Local Areas and Australia

Cultural Diversity

People from different cultural origins make up Australia's multicultural population, which is comparable to the varied experiences of Thai breast cancer survivors. The study's emphasis on how culture affects coping strategies is relevant to the healthcare system in Australia (Rajagopal et al., 2019).

Alternative Therapies

Australians investigate complementary and alternative therapies, much as Thai participants did. The results can help nurses talk to patients about these therapies and help them make decisions that will ensure safety and efficacy.

Support for Survivors

Everyone experiences emotional and psychological difficulties. Nurses in Melbourne's Western Suburbs can use the study's findings to create programmes for survivorship that cater to their emotional needs, run support groups, and offer coping mechanisms.

Result for Nurses

The study's conclusions emphasise the significance of nurses' roles outside of healthcare. Understanding the psychological and emotional journeys of breast cancer survivors can help nurses provide supportive interventions and compassionate care. Nurses can improve patient trust and comfort by fostering a therapeutic nurse-patient connection through the integration of these principles into their practice.

References

Alhazmi, A. A., & Kaufmann, A. (2022). Phenomenological qualitative methods applied to the analysis of cross-cultural experience in novel educational social contexts. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1495. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.785134

Feng, Y., Spezia, M., Huang, S., Yuan, C., Zeng, Z., Zhang, L., Ji, X., Liu, W., Huang, B., Luo, W., Liu, B., Lei, Y., Du, S., Vuppalapati, A., Luu, H. H., Haydon, R. C., He, T. C., & Ren, G. (2018). Breast cancer development and progression: Risk factors, cancer stem cells, signaling pathways, genomics, and molecular pathogenesis. Genes & diseases, 5(2), 77–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gendis.2018.05.001

Haynes, K. (2017). Reflexivity in accounting research. In The Routledge companion to qualitative accounting research methods (pp. 284-298). Routledge. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286352842_Reflexivity_in_qualitative_research

Olsson Möller, U., Olsson, I. M., Sjövall, K., Beck, I., Rydén, L., & Malmström, M. (2020). Barriers and facilitators for individualized rehabilitation during breast cancer treatment–a focus group study exploring health care professionals’ experiences. BMC health services research, 20(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05107-7

Rajagopal, L., Liamputtong, P., & McBride, K. A. (2019). The Lived Experience of Australian Women Living with Breast Cancer: A Meta-Synthesis. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, 20(11), 3233–3249. https://doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.11.3233

Sirris, S. (2022). Researchers’ Role Reflexivity When Studying Values Work. In Researching Values: Methodological Approaches for Understanding Values Work in Organisations and Leadership (pp. 205-224). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-90769-3_12

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