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Identify How you can Obtain Further Information to Check Martha’s Health Status Using your Knowledge of the Body Systems

To gain a comprehensive understanding of Martha's health status, it is crucial to review her medical history, conduct a thorough physical examination, order appropriate diagnostic tests, and engage in open conversations with Martha and her daughter. Additionally, observing Martha's daily activities, lifestyle and dietary habits will provide valuable insights into her functional status and potential care needs.

Describe Any Actual and Potential Problems for Martha

Martha's advancing dementia raises concerns as forgetfulness and confusion grow. Transitioning to professional care becomes emotionally challenging for her daughter. Martha's oral health worsens, evident in her complaint of a sore tooth, possibly linked to evolving hygiene habits. The chronic bronchitis underscores the difficulties faced in managing health issues independently.

What Interventions may be Suitable in this Situation to improve Martha’s Health Status?

Establishing a consistent daily routine, including a structured oral dental care plan, is essential for Martha. Ensure she adheres to prescribed bronchitis medication, complemented by daily breathing exercises to enhance respiratory function. A well-balanced diet is crucial, addressing tooth pain and supporting overall health. Prompt dental treatment for any identified issues like cavities is necessary. Integrate cognitive exercises tailored to Martha's decline to promote mental well-being. 

Identify the People you Could Clarify the Significance of Martha’s Health Issues with if you were Uncertain or It was Outside the Scope of your Role







From the List of People Identified in Question 4 Complete the Table Below Identifying Two and Clarifying their Roles, Responsibilities, and Limitations in Confirming Martha’s Health Status

Care team member 

Role and responsibilities 



Focuses on assessing and managing Martha's overall health, including dementia caused due to her old age

Geriatrician may be limited in providing specific dental interventions or treatments for Martha's oral health issues.


Specialises in addressing oral health, such as the sore tooth and potential cavities.

 Dentist may have constraints in managing Martha's overall health, including dementia, her chronic bronchitis and respiratory concerns. 


Explain the Potential Risk Factors of Martha’s Current Health Status Including Dementia and Breathing Issues

Martha's dementia poses significant risks, including cognitive decline, impaired judgment, and difficulty managing medications. Her breathing issues may be linked to chronic bronchitis, potentially exacerbated by age-related changes in lung function. Martha's oral health concerns, such as a sore tooth, contribute to her overall health risks. Poor oral health is linked to systemic issues, potentially impacting respiratory conditions and worsening dementia symptoms.

Martha and her daughter have made the decision to keep Martha in the family home but utilise the support of professionals to come in and assist in caring for Martha. 

To make sure this is possible Martha needs to have a full examination and assessment of her overall health status so that the correct support can be provided for Martha and her daughter. 

You will be required to arrange and participate in this assessment process.

Provide the list of services Martha will be referred to and the role and responsibility of each will play in confirming her health status

Neurologist: Responsible for evaluating, diagnosing, and managing conditions impacting the brain, spinal cord, and nerves in Martha's case of dementia.

Pulmonologist: Specialized in addressing and treating Martha's respiratory concerns, providing expertise in managing her breathing issues.

Dentist: Tasked with examining and addressing Martha's sore tooth, ensuring comprehensive oral health care.

Palliative Care/Hospice: Engaged in proactively planning advanced directives and offering supportive care to enhance Martha's overall well-being as her health situation evolves.

Provide the information for appropriate health and dental services in your local area, including in-home care and respite services.

n Australia, individuals can access comprehensive health and dental services, including in-home care and respite services, through various providers. Notable organizations offering health services include the Australian Government's Medicare system, which covers a range of medical expenses. For dental care, individuals can avail services from established dental clinics such as Bupa Dental and Pacific Smiles. In-home care and respite services are facilitated by providers like KinCare and Just Better Care, supporting individuals with personalized care plans and assistance in the comfort of their homes.

Task 2 - Case study 2

You are a community support worker for the local council that provides in-home care for the elderly where required. You have just met with Paul for the first time and begin to gather some information about Paul and his health status.

Paul tells you that he has recently been diagnosed with diabetes and he is concerned this will impact the level of independence he has. Paul is in remission from cancer and so far, all his tests are looking positive for staying cancer free.

Paul currently lives on his own although discloses to you that he is finding it difficult to keep up with the bills of running his home.

Paul has two children that live a few hours away and only come to visit every six or so weeks. 

Paul was reluctant to meet with you at first however he tells you that he is glad that he did and feels comfortable talking to you.

Describe how you could identify the cause of Paul’s diabetes, including family history and environmental factors. (40-50 words)

To ascertain the cause of Paul's diabetes, a thorough assessment involves investigating his family history for genetic predispositions. Concurrently, exploring lifestyle, diet, and physical activity levels is crucial to uncover potential environmental factors like polluted air and water. The influence of family history on diabetes risk has been documented (Cornelis et al., 2014).

Confirm which body systems Paul’s diabetes may affect and how this could impact Paul’s overall health

Paul's diabetes may affect his cardiovascular system, increasing the risk of cardiovascular complications. It could impact his respiratory system, contributing to potential respiratory issues. In the digestive system, difficulties in glucose metabolism may arise. The neuro system may be affected by neuropathy, impacting sensation and nerve function. Finally, the endocrine system, responsible for insulin regulation, is directly influenced, disrupting overall metabolic balance and potentially leading to various health complications.

Given Paul’s recent diabetes diagnosis and you not being a diabetes specialist, what could you do to support Paul in learning more about this disease? 

I can support Paul in learning more about diabetes by encouraging a healthy lifestyle and diet to control insulin levels. I can assist with medication management, helping him track sugar levels and adhere to prescribed medications. Encouraging regular check-ups is essential to prevent complications. Providing emotional support and encouragement is crucial, and I can facilitate communication with Paul's children to ensure they are informed and involved in his care, emphasizing the importance of family support in managing diabetes.

Task 3 – Knowledge Questions

Carefully read through each question posed. Reflect on your learning unit and your own research. To fully demonstrate your knowledge in this area of study each knowledge question will specify the number of words required for your response.

Please note: Where the word count is not met, your submission will be returned to you for re-working.

Describe the Five Different Structural levels of the human body system

1. Cellular Level:

The fundamental structural and functional components of the body are its cells. The ability of each cell to perform particular tasks and preserve its individuality is essential to the organism's general health.

2. Tissue Level:

Tissues are composed of cells that have comparable morphologies and roles. The body is made up of four main types of tissues: neural, muscle, connective, and epithelial. Each type of tissue has a specific function. Muscle tissues allow movement, neural tissues carry out signal transmission, epithelial tissues cover surfaces, and connective tissues bind and support.

3. Organ Level:

Organs are structures made up of various tissue types that cooperate to carry out particular tasks. For instance, in order to facilitate digestion, the stomach is an organ that requires the coordination of muscular, epithelial, and connective tissues.

4. System Level:

Organs with related functions join together to form systems, such as the cardiovascular or digestive system. These systems work collaboratively to carry out broader physiological processes necessary for the body's survival and maintenance.

5. Organismal Level:

At the highest structural level, all systems function together to constitute the entire organism. This level encompasses the integration of all structural and functional aspects, allowing the human body to carry out complex processes required for life. 

(National Cancer Institute, 2019a, b;Barrett, 2019)

Describe each of the life processes displayed in the picture below

1. Nutrition:

This process involves obtaining and assimilating nutrients for energy and growth. In the image, organisms are likely engaged in consuming food or absorbing nutrients from their surroundings to sustain their metabolic activities.

2. Transportation:

Organisms require a means to distribute nutrients, gases, and other vital substances throughout their bodies. In the picture, transportation could involve the movement of fluids, such as blood or sap, within vascular systems to deliver nutrients and oxygen.

3. Respiration:

Respiration is the process by which organisms extract energy from nutrients. In the image, organisms may be exchanging gases, typically oxygen and carbon dioxide, to support cellular respiration and generate energy.

4. Excretion:

This life process involves the removal of waste products generated by cellular activities. The image may depict organisms expelling waste materials, ensuring the maintenance of internal homeostasis.

5. Reproduction:

Reproduction is crucial for the continuity of a species. The picture might illustrate organisms engaging in reproductive activities, such as the formation of new individuals or the transfer of genetic material.

6. Metabolism:

Metabolism encompasses all the chemical processes within an organism, including the breakdown of substances for energy and the building of complex molecules for growth and repair. 

 (National Cancer Institute, 2019a, b)

Explain the term homeostasis

The body's capacity to keep its internal environment steady in the face of changes outside is known as homeostasis. It entails controlling physiological parameters to guarantee ideal circumstances for cellular activity, including pH, temperature, and nutrient levels. The body's overall stability and functionality are ensured by feedback mechanisms that detect deviations from the set point and initiate responses to restore balance, thereby maintaining this dynamic equilibrium .(Mas-Bargues et al., 2023)

Outline the relationship between homeostatic imbalance and disease

Homeostatic imbalance refers to a disruption in the body's ability to maintain stable internal conditions, leading to a deviation from the normal physiological state. This imbalance often creates a conducive environment for the initiation and exacerbation of diseases. Chronic stress on organs, tissues, and systems can compromise their integrity and functionality. It may weaken the immune system, making the body more susceptible to infections, or lead to the progression of conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmune disorders (Mas-Bargues et al., 2023) .For example, persistent high blood sugar levels due to a breakdown in glucose regulation can lead to diabetes. Similarly, disruptions in the balance of hormones, electrolytes, or pH levels can lead to metabolic disorders, organ dysfunction, or systemic diseases.

For each of the Body Systems listed below please describe the structure and function of each

a. Cells, Tissues, and Organs 

Cells form tissues, and tissues organize into organs, constituting the structural hierarchy of the body. Each cell performs specific functions, tissues provide structural support, and organs carry out specialized tasks, collectively ensuring the body's overall functionality (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

b. Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system, comprising the heart, blood vessels, and blood, facilitates nutrient delivery, gas exchange, and waste removal. The heart pumps blood, while vessels transport oxygen, nutrients, and hormones, ensuring essential functions like oxygenation of tissues and removal of metabolic waste (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b)

c. Respiratory System

The respiratory system, encompassing the lungs and respiratory passages, facilitates gas exchange. It supplies oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide through breathing, supporting cellular respiration and maintaining optimal blood gas levels (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

d. Musculoskeletal System

The musculoskeletal system, consisting of bones, muscles, joints, and connective tissues, provides structural support, facilitates movement, protects organs, and produces blood cells within the bone marrow, contributing to overall body function and mobility (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

e. Endocrine System

The endocrine system, including glands like the pituitary and thyroid, regulates body functions through hormone secretion. These hormones influence metabolism, growth, development, and various physiological processes, ensuring overall coordination and balance within the body (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

f. Digestive System

The digestive system, involving the mouth, stomach, intestines, and associated organs, processes and absorbs nutrients from food. It plays a vital role in energy production, nutrient assimilation, and waste elimination through the processes of digestion and absorption (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

g. Urinary System

Comprising kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, the urinary system filters waste from the blood, maintaining water and electrolyte balance. It plays a crucial role in eliminating metabolic waste products, regulating blood pressure, and ensuring proper fluid balance (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

h. Reproductive System

The reproductive system, with organs like the ovaries and testes, facilitates reproduction. It produces gametes (sperm and eggs) and supports fetal development, ensuring the continuation of the species and contributing to genetic diversity (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

i. Integumentary System

Consisting of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands, the integumentary system acts as a barrier to keep out outside threats. It promotes overall bodily health by controlling body temperature, avoiding dehydration, and enhancing sensory perception (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

j. Lymphatic System

Immune system function is supported by the lymphatic system, which includes the spleen, vessels, and lymph nodes. It plays a crucial part in the immune response, protecting against infections and preserving the balance of tissue fluids. It filters lymph, returning fluids to the bloodstream (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

k. Nervous system, including sensory systems -eyes and ears

The nervous system, comprising the brain, spinal cord, nerves, eyes, and ears, coordinates body activities. It interprets sensory input, enables communication through electrical impulses, and regulates physiological functions, ensuring responsiveness to the external environment (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

l. The special senses (taste, vision, equilibrium & hearing)

Special senses involve taste buds, eyes, inner ear, and related sensory structures. These senses enable the perception of taste, vision, balance, and hearing, enhancing awareness of the external environment and contributing to a comprehensive sensory experience (National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b).

m. Immune system

The immune system, consisting of white blood cells, lymphocytes, and organs like the thymus and spleen, defends against pathogens. It prevents illness, recognizes and eliminates foreign substances, and plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health and the body's ability to resist infections(National Cancer Institute, 2019a,b)

Provide definitions for the following anatomical and medical terminology in relation to the human body

Anatomical position

Standard reference posture where the body stands upright, facing forward, with arms at the sides, and palms forward (Strzelec et al., 2017)

Abdominopelvic cavity

Collective term for the abdominal and pelvic cavities, housing organs like the stomach, liver, intestines, and reproductive organs (Strzelec et al., 2017)


Positioned near or toward the tail or posterior end of the body (Strzelec et al., 2017)

Frontal plane

Vertical plane dividing the body into front and back portions, also known as the coronal plane.(Strzelec et al., 2017)

Anterior cavity 

Body cavity containing organs such as the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities, located towards the front of the body (Strzelec et al., 2017)

Cranial cavity

The hollow space in the skull housing the brain(Strzelec et al., 2017)


Relatively closer to the point of attachment or the center of the body, usually used for limbs. (Strzelec et al., 2017)

Complete the Table Below by Identifying a Common Problem and the Signs or Symptoms for each Body System

Human body system 

Common disease/problem 

Signs and symptoms 

Cells, tissues, and organs 


Unexplained weight loss, fatigue, abnormal growths, changes in skin texture.

Cardiovascular system 


High blood pressure, headaches, dizziness, chest pain, fatigue.

Respiratory system 


Wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, coughing.

Musculo-skeletal system


Joint pain, stiffness, decreased range of motion.

Endocrine system


Increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision

Digestive system 

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, difficulty swallowing.

Urinary system 

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Painful urination, frequent urination, cloudy urine, lower abdominal pain.

Reproductive system 

Menstrual Disorders

Irregular periods, heavy bleeding, pelvic pain.

Integumentary system 


Itching, redness, inflammation, dry skin.

Lymphatic system 


Swelling in arms or legs, feeling of heaviness, restricted range of motion.

Nervous system 


Sudden numbness or weakness, confusion, trouble speaking, severe headache.

The special senses (taste, vision, equilibrium & hearing)


Gradual loss of peripheral vision, eye pain, blurred vision.

Immune system 

Autoimmune Disease (e.g., Rheumatoid Arthritis)

Joint pain, swelling, fatigue, fever.


Define pharmacology and contraindication. Include an example of contraindication in relation to health

Trauma, Toxins and other Environmental Factors

External influences like injuries, exposure to harmful substances, or environmental pollutants that can cause diseases or disrupt physiological processes.

Nutritional Factors

Imbalances or deficiencies in nutrient intake that can lead to diseases, affecting growth, development, and overall health.

Impacts Caused by Health Interventions

Adverse effects resulting from medical treatments, surgeries, or medications, impacting health despite the intention to improve it.

Degenerative Changes in Vital Organ Systems

Progressive deterioration of organ function over time, often associated with aging, leading to conditions like Alzheimer's or osteoarthritis.

The Loss of Normal Control Mechanisms

Malfunctions in regulatory systems that control cell growth, differentiation, or apoptosis, contributing to conditions like cancer where normal control over cell division is lost.

There are Four Major Types of Cellular Adaption

Atrophy: Cellular shrinkage due to a decrease in cell size or number, often caused by disuse, aging, or inadequate blood supply (Miller & Zachary, 2017).Hypertrophy: Increase in cell size, leading to enlarged tissues or organs, usually in response to increased workload or hormonal stimulation (Miller & Zachary, 2017).Hyperplasia: Increase in cell number, resulting in enlarged tissues, commonly seen in hormonal or compensatory responses (Miller & Zachary, 2017).Metaplasia: Transformation of one cell type to another, often in response to chronic irritation or inflammation, altering tissue structure (Miller & Zachary, 2017

Explain how the reproductive, nervous and endocrine systems interact

The reproductive, nervous, and endocrine systems interact through intricate signaling pathways. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the nervous system influence the endocrine system, regulating reproductive hormones. Reproductive hormones impact the nervous system, affecting mood, cognition, and behavior (Neumann et al., 2019). This interconnectedness ensures coordinated control of reproductive processes.

Describe how physical, mental and emotional issues can be the cause of disease

Chronic stress (mental/emotional) may lead to conditions like hypertension (physical). Mental health disorders, such as depression, can manifest physically, impacting immune function and increasing susceptibility to illness. Emotional well-being is integral to overall health and disease prevention.

Describe the key features of each of the following causes of disease


Microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi that cause diseases by infecting and disrupting normal bodily functions, often triggering immune responses.

Inherited genetic conditions

 Conditions transmitted through genes, leading to abnormalities in structure or function, affecting various aspects of health and development.

Describe each of the following processes 


Metabolism involves all chemical processes in the body, including the breakdown of nutrients to produce energy, the synthesis of molecules, and the regulation of biochemical pathways to maintain cellular functions .(Sánchez López de Nava & Raja, 2020)


Nutrition is the process of obtaining and utilizing nutrients from food. It involves digestion, absorption, and the utilization of essential substances for growth, energy, and overall health (MSD Manual Consumer Version, 2023)

Body temperature regulation 

To adjust to outside circumstances and avoid overheating or hypothermia, the body uses mechanisms including sweating, shivering, and blood vessel dilatation or constriction to maintain a steady internal temperature (MSD Manual Consumer Version, 2023)

Biological maturation 

Biological maturation is the process of development and growth, encompassing physical, cognitive, and emotional changes that occur from birth to adulthood, shaping an individual's overall maturity.

Inheritance and aging

Inheritance involves the passing of genetic material from parents to offspring. Aging is a complex process characterized by cumulative changes over time, including cellular damage, genetic factors, and environmental influences.

Describe gum disease and the different stages of gum disease

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is an inflammatory illness that affects the tissues that surround teeth. When gingivitis is in its early stages, it causes gums to swell, bleed readily, and turn red when brushing. Usually, gingivitis is curable with better oral hygiene habits (Sedghi et al., 2021). If untreated, it may develop into periodontitis, a condition in which pockets form between the gums and teeth due to deeper inflammation. Periodontitis leads to the destruction of bone and connective tissue, causing teeth to become loose and potentially leading to tooth loss. Advanced periodontitis signifies severe damage, necessitating intensive treatment to manage infection, restore oral health, and prevent further complications.(Sedghi et al., 2021)

Cavities and Tooth Decay:

Dentate: Susceptible to cavities, often caused by poor oral hygiene, sugary diets, or insufficient fluoride exposure.

Edentulous: Face issues such as denture-related stomatitis or inflammation of the oral tissues beneath the dentures. (Bruna Rocha Neves et al., 2023)

Gum Disease (Periodontal Disease):

Dentate: Gingivitis and periodontitis are prevalent, affecting the gums and supporting structures of natural teeth.

Edentulous: Inflammation occurring in residual ridges where dentures rest, leading to discomfort and potential complications.(Bruna Rocha Neves et al., 2023)

Oral Cancer:

Dentate: Regular screenings are vital as oral cancer can affect the lips, tongue, cheeks, and throat in those with natural teeth.

Edentulous: individuals should still be monitored, particularly if they use tobacco or have other risk factors. (Bruna Rocha Neves et al., 2023)

Tooth Sensitivity:

Dentate: Tooth sensitivity to hot, cold, or sweet stimuli can occur due to enamel erosion, gum recession, or cavities.

Edentulous: May experience discomfort in the oral tissues or with dentures, indicating potential fitting issues or underlying problems like residual ridge resorption.(Bruna Rocha Neves et al., 2023)

Clarify How you Can Identify Variations from Normal Functioning in Clients

Observing changes in clients' oral hygiene habits, noting signs of inflammation, bleeding, or unusual oral sensations, and assessing conditions like halitosis or difficulty chewing can help identify variations from normal functioning, prompting appropriate interventions and preventive measures. Regular communication and thorough examinations contribute to holistic client care.

Pharmacology is the study of drugs, including their properties, uses, and effects on living organisms. It encompasses understanding drug interactions, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic applications (Satoskar & Bhandarkar, 2020) . A contraindication is a condition or factor that renders a particular treatment or drug inappropriate.For eg- Isotretinoin, prescribed for severe acne, is contraindicated during pregnancy due to a high risk of birth defects, prioritizing fetal safety(Pile & Sadiq, 2020) .


Barrett, K. E. (2019). Ganong's review of medical physiology.

Bruna Rocha Neves, Costa, F., Cavalcanti, B., Eduardo Piza Pellizzer, & Lúcia, S. (2023). Muscle activity between dentate and edentulous patients rehabilitated with dental prostheses: A systematic review. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 50(12), 1508–1517.

Cornelis, M. C., Zaitlen, N., Hu, F. B., Kraft, P., & Price, A. L. (2014). Genetic and environmental components of family history in type 2 diabetes. Human Genetics, 134(2), 259–267.

Mas-Bargues, C., Román-Domínguez, A., Borrás, C., & Viña, J. (2023). Chapter 23 - Geroscience: a unifying view on aging as a risk factor (P. J. Oliveira & J. O. Malva, Eds.). ScienceDirect; Academic Press.

Miller, M. A., & Zachary, J. F. (2017). Mechanisms and morphology of cellular injury, adaptation, and death. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 2-43.e19.

MSD Manual Consumer Version. (2023). Organ Systems - Fundamentals.

National Cancer Institute. (2019a). Body Functions & Life Process | SEER Training.

National Cancer Institute. (2019b). Review: Introduction to the Human Body | SEER Training., A.-M., Schmidt, C. X., Brockmann, R. M., & Oster, H. (2019). Circadian regulation of endocrine systems. Autonomic Neuroscience, 216, 1–8. 

Pile, H. D., & Sadiq, N. M. (2020). Isotretinoin. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.

Sánchez López de Nava, A., & Raja, A. (2020). Physiology, Metabolism. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. 

Satoskar, R. S., & Bhandarkar, S. D. (2020). Pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. Elsevier India.

Sedghi, L. M., Bacino, M., & Kapila, Y. L. (2021). Periodontal disease: The good, the bad, and the unknown. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 11.

‌Strzelec, B., Chmielewski, P. P., & Gworys, B. (2017). The Terminologia Anatomica matters: examples from didactic, scientific, and clinical practice. Folia Morphologica, 76(3), 340–347.

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