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Section One: Priority Needs

Mapping Social Isolation and Loneliness's Root Causes

Mapping Social Isolation

Contributing Factors of Priority:

Restricted Availability of Medical Services:

Evidence: The issue of older people with vision impairments not having enough access to healthcare is a serious one that affects their physical and emotional health (Roesch et al., 2020). 

Theory-Based Justification: Considering the known relationship between better physical and mental health, it is imperative to strategically address the issue of limited healthcare access. Inaccessible healthcare makes people more vulnerable and prevents them from actively participating in their communities (Diehl et al., 2018).

Social and Economic Issues:

Evidence: The group experiences significant demographic gaps, which limit their ability to engage in social events and heighten their feelings of loneliness (Leigh et al., 2017). 

Theory-Based Justification: The focus on resolving socioeconomic issues is consistent with the knowledge that these discrepancies play a major role in social isolation. Reducing these obstacles aims to provide the demographic in question with more financial power while promoting a sense of community by getting them more involved in events (Frassen et al., 2020).

Barriers Related to Age:

Evidence: The elderly population faces obstacles that prevent them from participating in social and community activities, especially those who are visually impaired (Freedman and Nicolle, 2020)

Theory-Based Justification: A sensation of exclusion is significantly influenced by age-related constraints, particularly mobility restrictions. To improve social involvement and foster deep relationships within the neighbourhood, the plan aims to remove these obstacles (Cohen and Eisner, 2020).

Justification for Meeting Priority Needs:

The prioritisation of these important components has been determined based on both theoretical and empirical evidence. Through the resolution of age-related obstacles, socioeconomic difficulties, and restricted access to healthcare, the goal of a wellness plan is to create a setting that fosters a sense of belonging and camaraderie in addition to good physical condition. This tactical approach is in perfect harmony with the main goal of reducing social isolation and loneliness among Abuja's elderly visually impaired population (Macdonald et al., 2018)

Section Two: Objectives and Components


Improving Medical Services' Accessibility:

Goal: By the end of two years, make routine medical care or eye care more accessible to at least 65% of Abuja's older population who suffer from visual impairments (Donovan et al., 2017).

Justification: This goal is Time-bound (within two years), Relevant (in line with the problem statement), Specific, Measurable (a 65% increase), and Achievable.

Promote Intersectional Economic Integration:

Goal: In three years, increase socioeconomic integration such that at least 70% of Abuja's elderly visually impaired population will have better employment opportunities (Algren et al., 2020).

Reasoning: This goal is Time-bound (within three years), Relevant (addresses socioeconomic limitations mentioned in the problem statement), Specific, Measurable (70% improvement), Achievable, and Relevant.

Lower Social Participation Barriers Associated with Age:

The aim is to create a welcoming atmosphere that will lower age-related obstacles to social involvement and allow sixty percent of senior citizens with vision impairments to participate actively in community events in the following two years (Elmer, 2018).

Justification: This goal is Time-bound (within two years), Specific, Measurable (with 60% engagement), Achievable, Relevant (addresses age-related constraints mentioned in the problem statement).

Healthy Setting Elements:

The government health centre in Kubwa, Abuja, would be the primary focus of the health promotion plan, which will incorporate components of the healthy environments concept.

Elements Listed

  1.  Collaboration and Participation in the Community: The community-oriented problem definition and the inclusion of community engagement are in line. Working together with the community creates a feeling of ownership and guarantees that the interventions are tailored to the specific requirements of senior citizens with vision impairments and are culturally sensitive (Kelly et al., 2019).
  2. Developing Capabilities and Training: To improve the abilities of the medical staff at the government health centre, capacity building and training are crucial components. By tackling the deficiencies in healthcare access directly, this is in line with the problem description. Enhancing the competencies of healthcare personnel guarantees an atmosphere for healthcare that is more welcoming and beneficial for the intended population (Gardiner and Geldenhuys, 2018).
  3. Modification of the Physical Environment: Although adapting the physical surroundings is frequently essential, the government health facility in Kubwa is already outfitted to meet the requirements of senior citizens with vision impairments. The setting's current strengths justify the exclusion of this component, which calls for a greater focus on targeted measures, which tackle socioeconomic constraints and healthcare access.
  4. Policy Formulation: It is assumed that the government health centre is in line with current healthcare policies, which is why policy development is not included. The plan places more emphasis on actions that specifically tackle the requirements identified and make use of the facilities and resources already present in the health centre than it does on creating policies (Rokach, 2019)

Section Three: Plan for Implementation

Strategies for Health Promotion:

Healthcare Workers' Capacity Building and Training:

Goal: Improve the medical staff's knowledge and abilities at a government health centre in Kubwa, with an emphasis on giving elderly people with visual impairments free annual physicals.

Justification: Knowledge acquired via specialised training enables skilled healthcare practitioners to improve the general health and wellbeing of the senior population. By promoting a pleasant healthcare environment, free routine medical examinations are consistent with the Ottawa Charter's action area on healthy public policy creation (Ellard et al., 2022).

Cooperation and Community Activation:

Goal: Encourage the community to support and take part in free annual physical examinations for older citizens who are blind or visually impaired. Create support systems, enliven the community, and spread the word about the value of routine health examinations.


Getting the community involved in free medical screenings and supporting them will help lessen the social isolation that older people experience. Establishing a social environment that fosters well-being is in line with the Ottawa Charter's action area on establishing supportive environments (Haugen et al., 2013).

Promoting Socio-Economic Inclusion Policies:

Goal: Push for laws that encourage socioeconomic inclusion, with a focus on older individuals with visual impairments receiving free, yearly physical examinations. Reducing health inequities and enhancing community well-being are the goals of these policy changes.

Justification: One of the main causes of social isolation is addressed by policy changes that promote free medical examinations. This approach supports systemic changes that give the community more power, which is in line with the Ottawa Charter's action area of increasing community engagement (Grenade and Boldy, 2008).

Health-promotion activities 

Objective 1: Increase Healthcare Service Accessibility

Health promotion activity and description of activity

Health promotion strategy / OC action area reflected in HP activity

Healthy setting element and best practice health promotion principle or value reflected in activity

 Programme of Specialized Training for Healthcare Workers

Establish a systematic training programme with an emphasis on the special healthcare requirements of the elderly with vision impairments for the staff of the government health center in Kubwa. Because of its convenient location, sizable senior population, pre-existing medical infrastructure, and community-focused philosophy, Kubwa was selected to ensure successful implementation and community involvement for the specialized training programme. To ensure an inclusive healthcare environment, the programme contains modules on effective communication, empathic care, and adaptable methods (Douthit et al., 2015)

 The Capacity Development and Certification for Healthcare Personnel approach is in line with this project. Highlighting training as a structural change that helps create a supportive healthcare environment, reflects the Ottawa Charter's action area of developing healthy public policy (Jang and Tang, 2022).

 To ensure that healthcare providers are equipped to deliver inclusive services, the activity tackles the healthy setting component of strengthening capacity within the healthcare organization. It complies with the capacity-building principle of best practices in promoting health, guaranteeing that healthcare personnel are prepared to handle the recognized contributory factor of restricted access to medical care (Neutens, 2015)

Objective 2: Strengthening of Socio-Economic Integration

Campaign for Resource Mobilization and Community Awareness.

Initiate a community-based initiative to increase awareness of the financial difficulties experienced by visually impaired senior citizens. The campaign includes informational seminars, community gatherings, and resource mobilization to support programmes that promote economic empowerment, like skill-building workshops and job placement services (Zhou, 2016)

 The Community Engagement and Mobilization plan is in line with this activity. It embodies the Ottawa Charter's action area of encouraging community awareness and engagement to create supportive environments (Long et al., 2019)

 The community is engaged by the activity, which reflects the aspect of community engagement that promotes a healthy setting. By guaranteeing that the target population actively participates in and owns the activities fostering socio-economic inclusion, it complies with the best practice health promotion tenet of participatory methods (Goodman and Wright, 2015)

Objective 3: Reduce Age-Related Impediments to Social Involvement

Promoting Age-Friendly Programmes and Inclusive Policies

Launch an advocacy campaign to sway laws in favour of inclusive and age-friendly practices. Collaborate with legislators, local authorities, and pertinent parties to advance programmes like accessible transit, communal areas, and get-togethers designed with the requirements of senior citizens with vision impairments in mind (Aburas et al., 2017)

The effort to advocate for a Socio-Economic Inclusion Policy approach is in line with this activity. It embodies the Ottawa Charter's action area, which is to promote systemic reforms to boost community action (Zhou, 2016)

The activity's emphasis on policy advocacy reflects the importance of a healthy setting in the process of developing policy. It follows the best practice for health promotion, which is to build on current strengths by implementing policies to remove obstacles associated with age and increase social interaction.


Aburas, M.M., Ho, Y.M., Ramli, M.F. and Ash’aari, Z.H., 2017. Improving the capability of an integrated CA-Markov model to simulate spatio-temporal urban growth trends using an Analytical Hierarchy Process and Frequency Ratio. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 59, pp.65-78.

Diehl, K., Jansen, C., Ishchanova, K. & Hilger-Kolb, J. (2018). Loneliness at Universities: Determinants of Emotional and Social Loneliness among Students, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9), 1865;

Donovan, N.J. and Blazer, D., 2020. Social isolation and loneliness in older adults: review and commentary of a national academies report. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(12), pp.1233-1244.

Douthit, N., Kiv, S., Dwolatzky, T. and Biswas, S., 2015. Exposing some important barriers to health care access in the rural USA. Public health, 129(6), pp.611-620.

Ellard, O.B., Dennison, C. & Tuomainen H. (2022) Review: Interventions addressing loneliness amongst university students: a systematic review, Child and Adolescent Mental Health, doi:10.1111/camh.12614

Elmer, E.M., 2018. Social isolation and loneliness among seniors in Vancouver: strategies for reduction and prevention. City of Vancouver Seniors' Advisory Committee.

Franssen, T., Stinjen, M., Hamers, F. & Schneider, F (2020), Age differences in demographic, social and health-related factors associated with loneliness across the adult life span (19-25 years): A cross-sectional study in Netherlands, BMC Public Health, 20:11 18

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Gardiner, C., Geldenhuys, G. and Gott, M., 2018. Interventions to reduce social isolation and loneliness among older people: an integrative review. Health & social care in the community, 26(2), pp.147-157.

Goodman, S.W. and Wright, M., 2015. Does mandatory integration matter? Effects of civic requirements on immigrant socio-economic and political outcomes. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(12), pp.1885-1908.

Grenade, L. & Boldy, D. (2008) Social isolation and loneliness among older people: issues and future challenges in community and residential settings, Australian Health Review, 32(3):468-478

Haugen, T., Safvenbom, R., & Ommundsen, Y. (2013) Sport Participation and Loneliness in Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Perceived Social Competence, Current Psychology, 32, 203-21

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Kelly, D., Steiner, A., Mazzei, M. and Baker, R., 2019. Filling a void? The role of social enterprise in addressing social isolation and loneliness in rural communities. Journal of rural studies, 70, pp.225-236.

Long, H., Zhang, Y. and Tu, S., 2019. Rural vitalization in China: A perspective of land consolidation. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 29, pp.517-530.

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