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In the pursuit of optimal health and well-being for aged individuals diagnosed with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), the significance of tailored exercise routines cannot be overstated. As the global population ages and the prevalence of CAD continues to rise among the elderly, there is a critical need for targeted and feasible interventions (Winzer et al., 2018). Understanding the life-changing impact of physical exercise, this research focuses on a particular and useful intervention— a daily walking routine of thirty minutes (Ungvari et al., 2023). The proposed walking routine is designed not only to address the unique health considerations associated with CAD but also to accommodate the age-related factors impacting exercise adherence and effectiveness (Vasankari et al., 2021). The focus on a specific duration—thirty minutes strikes a balance between effectiveness and feasibility for individuals aged 65 and above. This specific intervention is strategically tailored to meet the physical capabilities of the target population while acknowledging the constraints and considerations associated with aging.

Method 1

A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is a scientific study where participants are randomly assigned to different groups, with at least one group receiving the intervention (in this case, a specific exercise routine) and another group typically serving as a control, receiving either no intervention or a different treatment (Bhide et al., 2018). RCTs are considered the gold standard in research for assessing the effectiveness of interventions due to their ability to establish causation between the intervention and outcomes (Abdelazeem et al., 2022). It can be said that RCT is a valuable method when it aligns with the research questions as it involves randomly assigning elderly individuals with CAD to different exercise routines while considering their age and prevalent health conditions (Abdelazeem et al., 2022). One group could follow a tailored walking routine for 30 minutes daily, while another might engage in a different exercise or no exercise as the control. This method allows direct comparison between groups to determine the routine's efficacy in mitigating injury risks and promoting positive health outcomes specific to CAD in the elderly (Hunter et al., 2021). Researchers can track changes in participant health outcomes by using this experiment, including lower cardiovascular risk, more mobility, and a lower incidence of injuries among those who stick to the recommended exercise regimen (Bhide et al., 2018). Regular check-ups, physical exams, and surveys could be used to gauge participants' experiences, providing real data on the benefits and practicalities of the program.

Moreover, stratifying participants by age and health conditions enables a targeted understanding of which exercise routines are most beneficial for different subsets of the elderly population with CAD. An RCT provides a robust methodology for establishing causal links between exercise routines and health outcomes in elderly CAD patients (Bhide et al., 2018). This fills the research gap by offering a robust methodology to establish causal links between exercise routines and health outcomes in elderly CAD patients.

Method 2

The survey approach is useful in generating quantitative data on the effectiveness and feasibility of initiating a daily walking routine of thirty minutes for patients aged 65 and older with CAD. A survey is considered as a systematic tool for data collection that utilizes questionnaires to gather information from a sample of the population under investigation (Ponto, 2015). In this study, the survey serves as a quantitative instrument to assess the perceptions, behaviors, as well as outcomes associated with the proposed walking routine (-Abri & Al-Balushi, 2014). The target population will consist of those 65 years of age and older who have been diagnosed with CAD. The sample frame will be taken from cardiovascular health-focused healthcare facilities, senior centers, and community organizations. To ensure a representative sample, participants will be selected based on specific inclusion criteria (Ponto, 2015). The inclusion criteria will focus on individuals with a confirmed CAD diagnosis and those who can engage in a walking routine.

In order to implement the survey method, a structured questionnaire will be designed based on relevant literature, incorporating validated scales where applicable (Abri & Al-Balushi, 2014). Certain key aspects like current exercise habits of participants, willingness to engage in walking routine, perceived barriers, and expectations from the intervention will be covered in the survey questionnaire (Ungvari et al., 2023). This structured approach allows for the efficient collection of standardized data, facilitating statistical analysis and comparison (Ponto, 2015). It can be said that approximately 300 individuals will be approached to participate in the survey. In addition, the survey will be administered through a mixed-mode approach, including online platforms and in-person interviews (Abri & Al-Balushi, 2014). This specific approach acknowledges potential technological barriers faced by some elderly participants, ensuring inclusivity and maximizing response rates. The survey data will be analyzed and summarized using descriptive statistical analysis. This entails calculating frequencies, central tendency measurements, and graphical depictions to spot patterns and trends. Moreover, ethical considerations will be paramount throughout the survey process, ensuring participant confidentiality, informed consent, and respectful data handling practices.


Contrasting Merits, Drawbacks, and Ethical Implications

When comparing the suitability of the survey and Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) methods for the research on exercise routines for aged individuals with CAD, several aspects highlight their distinctiveness. This includes their relative merits, drawbacks, ethical implications, community and stakeholder participation, practical challenges like economic costs, and communication with relevant end-users.

Surveys demonstrate their merits in gathering a varied range of participant viewpoints, providing thorough qualitative insights on attitudes, behaviors, and exercise routine experiences (Abri & Al-Balushi, 2014). They provide flexibility in gathering data, allowing open-ended questions to facilitate in-depth comprehension (Bhide et al., 2018). RCTs, on the other hand, are unmatched in determining causal links. They provide controlled experimental conditions in which specific exercise regimens may be directly investigated for their impact on health outcomes, resulting in conclusive evidence of efficacy (Bhide et al., 2018).

While surveys are rich in qualitative data, they might be subject to biases, recall mistakes, and lack the precision required for causative inferences observed in RCTs (Abri & Al-Balushi, 2014). On the other hand, RCTs, though robust in establishing causation, can be resource-intensive, time-consuming, and might pose challenges in blinding participants in exercise intervention studies.

Surveys necessitate detailed safeguards for informed consent, data confidentiality, and participant privacy, ensuring ethical data collection (Abri & Al-Balushi, 2014). Conversely, RCTs demand heightened ethical scrutiny, focusing on participant well-being throughout the randomized intervention process. This emphasizes the importance of randomization integrity, as well as manages potential risks linked to the prescribed exercise routines (Bhide et al., 2018). Both methods require stringent adherence to ethical guidelines, with RCTs emphasizing participant safety during the experimental phases.

For this specific research on identifying beneficial exercise routines for elderly CAD patients, the RCT method emerges as the more relevant approach. In order to directly address the study question, the experimental design of RCT provides controlled conditions for evaluating and establishing causal links between prescribed exercise routines and health outcomes (Abdelazeem et al., 2022). Given the study's focus on determining the effectiveness of exercise regimens in mitigating injury risks, the RCT's ability to provide concrete, cause-and-effect evidence aligns directly with the research objectives (Abdelazeem et al., 2022).

Therefore, by comparing the merits, drawbacks, and ethical implications, it can be said that RCTs are more useful and pertinent for investigating the effects of a regular walking regimen on older adults with CAD. Although surveys provide valuable qualitative insights, RCTs are better suited to the complex nature of the study due to their unparalleled capacity to establish causation, crucial in determining the specific impacts of exercise routines on health outcomes.

Community and Stakeholder Participation

When considering community and stakeholder involvement, there are certain factors to take into account for both the survey and RCT techniques. In order to ensure the relevance and applicability of the exercise regimens recommended for senior CAD patients, surveys greatly benefit from community involvement (Abdelazeem et al., 2022). Involving stakeholders, such as healthcare providers and community organizations, enriches survey design and implementation, enhancing the intervention's practicality and acceptance (Nardi, 2018). On the other hand, RCTs necessitate cooperation between the community and stakeholders in order to streamline participant recruitment and guarantee that the recommended exercise regimens are in line with healthcare practices and community needs. Collaborating with stakeholders ensures that RCTs meet ethical standards, prioritize participant well-being, and enhance the interventions' translation into real-world healthcare settings (Abdelazeem et al., 2022).

Practical Challenges

The RCTs demand considerable time for participant recruitment, adherence monitoring, and data collection, potentially extending research timelines significantly (Abdelazeem et al., 2022). The feasibility issues arise due to the need for strict protocol adherence, participant compliance, and potentially limited availability of suitable candidates meeting the inclusion criteria. In addition, the RCTs can be resource-intensive, involving costs related to participant recruitment, interventions, and data analysis (Abdelazeem et al., 2022).

On the other hand, the surveys generally have shorter timelines, they might encounter challenges in participant response rates, data quality, and the depth of insights obtained (Ponto, 2015). Despite these challenges, surveys remain effective in providing comprehensive qualitative data, offering valuable insights into participant experiences and perceptions (Ponto, 2015).

Overall, while both methods present distinct challenges, RCTs stand out in effectiveness due to their capability to establish causation between exercise routines and health outcomes (Wickham, 2019). Their rigorous design ensures scientifically credible evidence, crucial for guiding interventions and clinical practice, despite their resource-intensive nature and prolonged timelines.

Communication to relevant end-users

The findings of the survey which captures patient perspectives can be disseminated through detailed reports or presentations, outlining participant feedback, attitudes, as well as behaviors regarding the proposed walking routine (Ponto, 2015). This method enables personalized recommendations for healthcare providers and policymakers, which offers actionable insights applicable to individuals aged 65 and above with CAD (Wickham, 2019). In contrast, RCT findings, typically presented in scholarly articles or research papers, offer quantitative, statistically supported evidence. They provide concrete cause-and-effect relationships between specific exercise routines and health outcomes in elderly CAD patients ((Sileyew, 2019)). The Randomized Controlled Trials generate precise data, which facilitates evidence-based practices and informing clinical guidelines. However, it may lack the technicality limit direct applicability or accessibility for non-academic audiences (Wickham, 2019). Therefore, considering the need for direct, actionable insights tailored to healthcare settings, RCT findings prove more effective. The quantitative precision and scientifically supported evidence provided by RCTs offer a robust foundation for guiding clinical interventions and policy decisions, ensuring their relevance and impact in healthcare practice for elderly CAD patients. Its capacity to record individual experiences corresponds well with the requirement for tailored suggestions.


In conclusion, the methodological approach of RCT emerge as the most suitable method for addressing the research question and filling the research gap regarding the impact of a daily walking routine on elderly individuals with coronary artery disease. The method’s offer robust, causative evidence elucidating the specific impact of exercise routines on health outcomes. This aligns precisely with the research goal of mitigating injury risks and promoting positive health outcomes in this demographic. While survey approach offers broader insights, RCT’s ability to establish direct cause-and-effect relationships outweighs the challenges posed by resource intensiveness, providing concrete and credible evidence essential for guiding clinical interventions.


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