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Marine is a 32-year-old woman living in Melbourne Australia. She is a professional artist. She usually consumes takeaway food for day and night meals. In the past few days, she is facing a lot of issues like urination at night and losing weight. Diabetes is a chronic health condition that affects the body and makes sugar levels rise. It will lead to high blood sugar. The impact of diabetes is seen on the vessel at macro and micro levels. It also impacts the functioning of the heart and becomes the reason for problems in the kidney, gums and nerves.

Reference: Niddk

Physiological Systems Involved

Pancreas is an organ and a gland that is responsible for the production of exocrine and endocrine hormones. The physiological process will involve the production of enzymes that allow digestion. While the endocrine will send out the hormones that are controlling the amount of sugar in the bloodstream (Schalkwijk et al., 2020).

the liver is also involved in the metabolism of sugar. It supplies glucose by turning glycogen into glucose with the process of glycogenolysis. It will be harvesting the amino acids, waste products and fat byproducts. Glycogenolysis is the biochemical pathway that is leading to the breakdown of glycogen into glucose-1-phosphate and releasing glucose. The reaction took place in the hepatocytes and myocytes that involve two enzymes that are phosphorylase kinase and glycogen. The role of the cycle is to provide energy on an immediate basis and will be maintaining blood glucose levels in fasting.

Blood vessels are involved in the transfer of sugar to the distant cells that are fulfilling their energy needs. Diabetes will lead to damage to the blood vessels and nerves that are controlling the blood supply to the heart and the eyes, it will increase the force on the arteries that is resulting in damage to artery walls. The increase in blood pressure will increase the chances of heart dysfunctioning as well as stroke.

In diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood due to the insufficiency of the pancreatic cells to produce insulin. It is resulting in low energy and makes the cells starve. Insulin is the principal hormone that is produced by the pancreas, it will move sugar in the blood by moving it into the cells (Suwanwongse & Shabarek 2021). In the case of type 2 diabetes, the main reason lies in the lifestyle choices that are making an individual develop the condition. Consuming high-sugar meals in which there is a lot of sugar that is required to be released that makes the pancreas unable to produce a sufficient amount of insulin. A direct impact will be seen on the liver and will be triggering hepatocyte dysfunction. In addition, due to the impact on the organs, a positive pressure is developed on the blood vessels that are making the heart and other organ function to get hampered. Altogether, the hemostatic will be disturbed which is making the progression of a chronic condition.

The situation Causing Challenges for Homeostasis

Hemostasis is defined as the mechanism that allows the cessation of bleeding from the blood vessel. It is composed of the multiple interlinking steps that are making the blood vessels function in a synchronised manner and control bleeding. Diabetes will impact the process of hemostasis by favouring hypercoagulation which in turn leads to cardiovascular complications and makes the high risk for myocardial infarction. The events take place due to the high blood sugar in the blood that is leading to the blood getting thick and impacting the linings. Lifestyle choices like high sugary meal intake is a causative (Rahman et al., 2022). The high percentage of sugar is the factor that will lead to a negative influence on the liver, pancreas and blood vessels. Blood vessels are involved in the transfer of sugar to the distant cells that are fulfilling their energy needs. Diabetes will lead to damage to the blood vessels and nerves and create an imbalance in the flow of blood which leads to damage to the end.

Impact on Hemostasis and Involvement of the Physiological System

In patients with diabetes, metabolic disorders disturb the physiological balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis, leading to a prothrombotic state characterised by platelet hypersensitivity, coagulation disorders and hypofibrinolysis. Diabetes mellitus is a cluster of metabolic conditions that is contributing to the prothrombotic states in patients. It is seen that hypoglycemic conditions will take place that are leading to cardiovascular risk and mortality. It will increase the thrombus that is making the platelet activation and will decrease the blood glucose. The events will lead to the promotion of the coagulant and dysfunctioning of fibrinolytic by making the increase in the pro-inflammatory reaction. It will be making the inflammatory pathway to get initiate which is influencing the liver functioning. Impact on vessels will be seen due to the high triglyceride levels and cholesterol levels that are because of the generation of thrombin. It will make the increase in the blood lipids that directly impairs the functioning of the hepatic cell (Henry et al., 2020). In the cardiovascular system, it is seen that the anticoagulation potential of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists is making cardiovascular protective effects. In the case of diabetes, it is seen that the increase in coagulation will cause the aggregate to get disposed of, which will; restrict the flow of blood. It is seen that if an individual is taking a meal or following a lifestyle that consists of a lack of physical activity and highly sugary meals is more likely to develop the malfunction of the organs. The release of the triglyceride and lipids will contribute to the BMI and will deposition of cholesterol. After a point of time, the system starts acting toward the deposited molecule and will increase insulin insensitivity. It will become the reason for a variable number of clot generation events and fibrinolysis. All these events will be impacting the normal physiological processes.

Adaption of the Physiological System

Diabetes is a chronic heterogeneous metabolic disorder that is having a complex pathogenesis. It is characterised by elevated blood glucose levels or hyperglycemia which results from abnormalities in either insulin secretion or both. It manifests in various forms that is leading to the generation of a coping mechanism. The adaptation will be seen in terms of the glucose being released from glycogen. It will target the liver and adipose tissue where the cells will be requiring glucose for the metabolic cycles. It will also increase the blood glucose in case of need in the cells. To overcome the high level of blood glucose, it is important to adopt the diet, and weight management exercise that is allowing diabetes to be controlled. Leisure activities and dietary modulations will lead to a reduction in thrombogenic markers. Also, lipid-lowering agents will be used for the reduction in the improvements of impaired glucose metabolism. The generation of a series of events in terms of hypersensitivity, modifications in coagulation factors and hypofibrinolysis. GLP-1 RS and SGLT-2i will be triggered in the diabetes related hypercoagulation (Pasquel et al., 2021). The series of events will be resulting in the management of the factors of diabetes. Altogether a combinatorial effect will be seen in management of diabetes. It will control the excessive inflammation, disruptive keratinocyte migration and decrease the markers in the bloodstream. In this manner, the body will generate the responses for improvement of the physiological pathways. The lifestyle choices like high sugary meal intake is a causative. The high percentage of sugar is the factor that will lead to the negative influence on the liver, pancreas and blood vessels. In such cases, generation of this pathways will improve the condition.


Henry, C. J., Kaur, B., & Quek, R. Y. C. (2020). Chrononutrition in the management of diabetes. Nutrition & diabetes, 10(1), 6.

Pasquel, F. J., Lansang, M. C., Dhatariya, K., & Umpierrez, G. E. (2021). Management of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in the hospital. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology, 9(3), 174-188.

Rahman, M. M., Islam, M. R., Shohag, S., Hossain, M. E., Rahaman, M. S., Islam, F., ... & Cavalu, S. (2022). The multifunctional role of herbal products in the management of diabetes and obesity: a comprehensive review. Molecules, 27(5), 1713.

Schalkwijk, C. G., & Stehouwer, C. D. A. (2020). Methylglyoxal, a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, in diabetes, its vascular complications, and other age-related diseases. Physiological reviews, 100(1), 407-461.

Suwanwongse, K., & Shabarek, N. (2021). Newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, DKA, and COVID‐19: Causality or coincidence? A report of three cases. Journal of medical virology, 93(2), 1150-1153.

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