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Introduction

The article "ARDD 2020: from aging mechanisms to Interventions" by Mkrtchyan et al. (2020) talks about numerous lifestyle-related strategies for metabolic interventions that can lead to minimising the effects associated with aging and improvement in the quality of life. The authors also shed light on the mechanisms associated with ageing with emphasis on developing an understanding of the same and the ways in which they can be further used for the development of effective interventions. This essay aims to discuss arguments made by the authors related to genetic modification to delay ageing and talk about health promotion interventions for various elderly age groups, which can be implemented for better health outcomes and overall physical and mental well-being.

Dietary restriction and reduced growth factor signalling have been discussed as one of the strategies in the paper. The discussion reveals that DR, as well as diminished signalling of growth factors, can lead to a reduction in oxidative stress and lessening chances of tumour development in model organisms, ultimately leading to an increased lifespan. According to Mkrtchyan et al. (2020), these therapies have also shown to be effective in lowering the metabolic characteristics linked to diseases including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in people. Fasting has been covered as the second approach in the text. The article goes into detail about how fasting can potentially slow down the aging process and prevent and treat diseases. Along with this, the negative consequences of long-term dietary modifications are lessened (Mkrtchyan et al., 2020).

Furthermore, it is claimed that processes like stem cell-based regeneration are encouraged by fasting and have long-lasting effects on an organism's metabolism (Mkrtchyan et al., 2020). Thirdly, the piece also focuses on many aspects of lifestyle, including a sedentary mindset and excessive food consumption. The authors emphasize that metabolic morbidities are brought on by eating often throughout the day. In order to combat this and enhance health and wellbeing, they advise using tactics like time-restricted eating (TRF) and intermittent fasting (IF). Due to its capacity to regenerate skeletal muscles and improve the functioning of muscle stem cells in older individuals, exercise has also been proposed as a treatment (Mkrtchyan et al., 2020).

Additionally, exercise has also been found to play a significant role in the reduction of inflammation, improvement in cardiovascular health and ameliorated cognitive function. Pharmacological interventions have also been talked about in the article. Geroprotectors might be required for minimising the effects of aging and improving the overall quality of life, as these classes of drugs directly target the process involved in aging. Additionally, these drugs have been shown to extend lifespan and improve healthspan in a variety of species (Mkrtchyan et al., 2020). Moreover, tyrosine and other non-essential amino acids are discussed in relation to the effects of aging. Tyrosine levels in flies decline as they age, and tyrosine-catabolic pathways also rise. Lastly, biomarker discovery has also been emphasised for the development of interventions related to aging. These can play an essential role as they can be used for tracking and monitoring the progression of aging and the effectiveness of interventions. The article suggests that the identification of reliable biomarkers of aging is critical for the development of effective interventions and the evaluation of their effectiveness (Mkrtchyan et al., 2020).

The argument of the author concerning the importance of lifestyle strategies for metabolic interventions for the management of aging has numerous indications for strategies related to the promotion of health in older people. The first key lifestyle intervention highlighted by the author is regular exercise (Mkrtchyan et al., 2020). The importance of exercise has been emphasised due to its regenerative potential with respect to skeletal muscles and its ability to enhance muscle stem cell functionality in old animals. In addition to this, exercise has also been found to act as an essential factor concerning the reduction of inflammation, improvement in cardiovascular health and ameliorated cognitive function. Therefore, the authors argue that health promotion strategies should encourage older people and focus towards increased participation in regular exercise for improved physical and cognitive well-being (Mkrtchyan et al., 2020). A substantial body of literature strongly supports the value of exercise in controlling aging. Exercising on a regular basis has benefited the health of older adults in more ways than one.

Firstly, apart from improving functionality and physical health, exercise has been found to alleviate the risks associated with conditions like heart disease, diabetes and certain cancer types. Secondly, exercise has also resulted in a positive impact on the mental health of aged individuals, with a reduction in symptoms related to anxiety, depression and dementia, leading to an improved quality of life (Langhammer et al., 2018). Moreover, exercise has proved to be advantageous not only in healthy people but also in the management of chronic conditions like COPD and arthritis. Exercise plays a vital role in the improvement of symptoms, enhanced quality of life in older people and reduced medication needs (Luan et al., 2019). For instance, a systematic review by Gelaw et al. (2020), comprising randomised control trials (RCTs), revealed that interventions involving exercise led to improved physical function and a reduction in the risk of falling. The review involved studies that focused on interventions such as aerobic exercise along with strength and balance training. The authors came to the conclusion that older people's physical function can be improved, and their risk of falling can be decreased by exercise programs.

Another systematic review by Ponzano et al. (2021), shed light on the potential of exercise interventions in improving cognitive function in aged individuals, especially in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Studies investigating exercise therapies like tai chi, aerobic exercise, and resistance training were taken into consideration for the review. The authors suggest that older people with mild cognitive impairment may benefit from exercise therapy the most in terms of improving cognitive function. Last but not least, Zhang et al.'s meta-analysis of RCTs in 2020 found that exercise programs can enhance cardiovascular health in older people, as well as lipid profiles and blood pressure reduction. The trials included in this evaluation covered a wide range of therapies, including resistance training, aerobic exercise, and a combination of the two. The researchers came to the conclusion that exercise programs might improve cardiovascular health in senior citizens, and that these effects might be more prominent in people who already had cardiovascular risk factors.

First, health promotion programs should include encouraging regular exercise and physical activity for the young to middle-aged age range (65-74). Seniors should be encouraged to engage in aerobic exercise, such as walking, cycling, or swimming, to improve their cardiovascular health, for example (Nikitas et al., 2022). According to research, aerobic exercise strengthens the heart, lowers blood pressure, and reduces the risk of acquiring chronic diseases like diabetes and heart disease. Older persons should be encouraged to engage in resistance-based exercises like weightlifting or bodyweight exercises to increase their muscle strength and functionality (Timmons et al., 2018). Resistance training has been shown to increase muscle mass, bone density, and balance in older people, hence reducing the risk of fractures and falls. With the use of these methods, elderly people can live longer, enjoy greater physical and mental health, reduce their risk of contracting chronic diseases, and generally live better (Rodrigues et al., 2022). Second, with regard to the middle-aged age group (75-84), attention should also be placed on regularly engaging in exercise and physical activity, which may require adjustments depending on the age group.

The modifications might be subjected to considering physical limitations such as exercises that are water-based or chair based. Furthermore, older adults' inability to exercise due to mobility problems or a fear of getting hurt should be the focus of health promotion programs (Vilhelmson & Thulin, 2022). Strategies for promoting health should also concentrate on giving older individuals the tools and encouragement they need to exercise, like access to facilities for physical activity or classes specifically for the elderly. These techniques can help older individuals live better lives and reduce the negative consequences of aging by enhancing their physical and cognitive health. Older individuals should be encouraged to exercise regularly, and health promotion endeavours should provide them with the tools and support they need to do so. They should also be educated about pain and fatigue management related to chronic conditions (Stevens & Cruwys, 2020). Thirdly, for the oldest age group (85-99), the strategies for health promotion should aim at the maintenance of physical function and independence.

This may entail engaging in exercises and physical activities that have an emphasis on simple functional movements like ascending stairs or rising from a bed. The intervention should also include exercises that encourage social interaction and cognitive simulation through group training and programming. Exercise has been shown to be helpful in this age range as well in lowering the incidence of fractures and falls, even for elderly people with poor eyesight or hearing loss (Deneau, 2018). Lastly, maintaining a healthy and high-quality life should be a top emphasis for health promotion interventions with centenarians (100+). For this age range, the emphasis of the exercise programs should be on moderate motions like stretching and other motion exercises, along with reminiscence or music therapy. An additional area of attention for health promotion initiatives should be helping older people manage age-related changes in their health condition, such as frailty and cognitive impairment, which may limit their ability to exercise (Borras et al., 2020).

For instance, knowledge of safe, moderate exercise techniques and activities can be useful in promoting regular physical activity in this age group. In addition to physical activity and exercise, various health promotion interventions can have a significant impact on the encouragement of healthy aging in older people (Bull et al., 2020). Nutrition education is one such strategy that enables seniors to maintain a balanced diet by consuming foods that are high in nutrients. These tactics can also involve instruction on how to manage the pain and exhaustion that come with chronic diseases (Macdonald et al., 2020). Another successful strategy for preventing premature aging, fostering a healthy lifestyle, and improving health outcomes in older persons is social interaction. Several options may be involved in this, including community-based programs, intergenerational programs, and other volunteer opportunities (Tyndall et al., 2018). The chances of depression, dementia, and cognitive decline have also been reported to be reduced by social participation. This could incorporate stress-reduction techniques including breathing exercises, mindfulness meditation, and cognitive behavioral therapy. In addition to emphasizing information and tools to assist older people in overcoming barriers to social engagement, such as transportation, financial limitations, and mobility problems, health promotion strategies can also be implemented (Cheung et al., 2020)

Conclusion

Due to changes in global demographics, the goal of healthy aging has assumed a prominent role in the modern environment. Understanding and reducing the impacts of aging become of utmost importance as the world's population continues to age. In this setting, lifestyle therapies for metabolic interventions have become an essential focus of the investigation. The significance of these tactics in reducing the effects of aging and improving the overall quality of life for older people is highlighted in this essay's critical analysis and evaluation of arguments from peer-reviewed research. One crucial reason stands out among the diverse viewpoints: the benefit of regular exercise in fostering good aging.

This claim makes the case that regular exercise can slow the effects of aging on metabolic processes, enhancing both physical and mental health in many ways. In order to promote successful aging, the author suggests that health promotion initiatives should highlight the inclusion of exercise regimens. The effectiveness of health promotion programs differs among the young old, medium old, eldest old, and centenarians due to unique physiological and psychosocial components. To be as effective as possible and raise the general standard of living for older people, interventions must be specifically designed to meet the needs of each age group.

References

Borras, C., Ingles, M., Mas-Bargues, C., Dromant, M., Sanz-Ros, J., Román-Domínguez, A., & Viña, J. (2020). Centenarians: An excellent example of resilience for successful ageing. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 186 , 111199. 

Bull, F. C., Al-Ansari, S. S., Biddle, S., Borodulin, K., Buman, M. P., Cardon, G., & Willumsen, J. F. (2020). World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54 (24), 1451-1462. 

Cheung, D. S. K., Kor, P. P. K., Jones, C., Davies, N., Moyle, W., Chien, W. T., & Lai, C. K. (2020). The use of modified mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program for family caregivers of people living with dementia: A feasibility study. Asian Nursing Research, 14 (4), 221-230.

Deneau, J. (2018). Exploring the Meaning of Aging & Physically Active Leisure in the Lives of Older Canadian Men: Directions for Health Promotion Strategies (Doctoral dissertation, University of Windsor (Canada)).

Gelaw, A. Y., Janakiraman, B., Gebremeskel, B. F., & Ravichandran, H. (2020). Effectiveness of Home-based rehabilitation in improving physical function of persons with Stroke and other physical disability: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 29 (6), 104800. 

Langhammer, B., Bergland, A., & Rydwik, E. (2018). The importance of physical activity exercise among older people. BioMed Research International , 2018 . 

Luan, X., Tian, X., Zhang, H., Huang, R., Li, N., Chen, P., & Wang, R. (2019). Exercise as a prescription for patients with various diseases. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 8 (5), 422-441.

Macdonald, S. H. F., Travers, J., She, E. N., Bailey, J., Romero-Ortuno, R., Keyes, M., & Cooney, M. T. (2020). Primary care interventions to address physical frailty among community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older: A meta-analysis. PLoS One, 15 (2), e0228821. 

Nikitas, C., Kikidis, D., Bibas, A., Pavlou, M., Zachou, Z., & Bamiou, D. E. (2022). Recommendations for physical activity in the elderly population: A scoping review of guidelines. Journal of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Falls, 7 (1), 18.

Ponzano, M., Rodrigues, I. B., Hosseini, Z., Ashe, M. C., Butt, D. A., Chilibeck, P. D., & Giangregorio, L. M. (2021). Progressive resistance training for improving health-related outcomes in people at risk of fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Physical Therapy, 101 (2), pzaa221.

Rodrigues, F., Domingos, C., Monteiro, D., & Morouço, P. (2022). A review on aging, sarcopenia, falls, and resistance training in community-dwelling older adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (2), 874.

Stevens, M., & Cruwys, T. (2020). Membership in sport or exercise groups predicts sustained physical activity and longevity in older adults compared to physically active matched controls. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 54 (8), 557-566. 

Timmons, J. F., Minnock, D., Hone, M., Cogan, K. E., Murphy, J. C., & Egan, B. (2018). Comparison of time‐matched aerobic, resistance, or concurrent exercise training in older adults. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 28 (11), 2272-2283. 

Tyndall, A. V., Clark, C. M., Anderson, T. J., Hogan, D. B., Hill, M. D., Longman, R. S., & Poulin, M. J. (2018). Protective effects of exercise on cognition and brain health in older adults. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 46 (4), 215-223. 

Vilhelmson, B., & Thulin, E. (2022). Changes in outdoor physical activities among older people in Sweden: Exploring generational shifts in time spent in natural environments. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe Canadien, 66 (1), 94-106. 

Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., Du, S., Wang, Q., Xia, H., & Sun, R. (2020). Exercise interventions for improving physical function, daily living activities and quality of life in community-dwelling frail older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Geriatric Nursing, 41 (3), 261-273. 

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