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Introduction, Motivation of the Topic

Higher levels of institutional changes have been observed to occur in Russia including the countryside since the period of 1992 (Uzun, Shagaida, & Lerman, 2019). The core components defining Soviet agriculture are not paramount in the current times. Those components include the production quotas, regulated labour market and food market, obligatory plans as well as the presence of state-owned farms and strict regulations towards the adaptation of entrepreneurial activities. In this connection, the current day institutional changes in the agro economics of Russia have led to income differentiation and stratification at the owned farms, individual as well as household level. This, in turn, led to the rise of gender discrimination in the wages in agro-economics in Russia.

Presentation of the Hypothesis/Statement/Finding to be Criticised

The first hypothesis related to the concerned study is borne out of the macro-economic behaviour. Institution impact caused in the agro-economics of Russia is observed as the effective increase in the participation in subsidiary agriculture during the period of the first half of the 1990s. The neoliberal reforms also worked towards codified land ownership and around three-fourths of the households held their land in terms of private ownership.

The second hypothesis statement relates with the regards of gender inequality. Concerning the general agro-economy in Russia it is argued that the Soviet norms are being replicated in the terms of post-Soviet Russia. In this connection, the position of the working male and female is hypothesised to work at similar levels without any gender division.

However, the reality exists as the extensive difference aroused in the rural informal agro-economy of Russia wherein the unequal gender roles are in operation leading to a lack of advancements of women population.

Evidence/Arguments in Favour of the Counter-position

The evidence relates to the suggestive that the agro land ownership has been the domain of the male population and the women population are not allowed to stand as the owners in the new economy of Russia (Davydenko et al., 2022). In addition to this, the male population has been investigated to earn more monetary benefit and amount as compared to the women from the agro entrepreneurial activity. This, in turn, reflects the functions of how the difference in gender leads to the valuation of services and the same are priced in Russian society. The only area where the responsibility is shared with the women in household marketing is concerned with the need for food.

Discussion

Studies argue that the women in Russia were termed as 'losers' during the period of 1990s. Thus, diversified social protections to help benefit the women population in the concerned nation during the Soviet period eroded such as the social policies that went unfunded or even underfunded (Bai et al., 2022). This further led to the women bearing the pain of unemployment, the wage level of the women diverged from men and the income gap went of growing larger from the 1990s till time. Nonetheless, the gender discrimination in wages in agro-economics has not just harmed the women population in terms of finances and employment. The same has even led to a higher sense of poverty being bearded by the women, sexual harassment becoming more prevalent with the passing of time and overt discrimination becoming increasingly common in the agro economics of Russia due to gender differences.

Furthermore, gender discrimination in the agro-economics sector of Russia has led to girls and women experiencing higher levels of health issues due to stress and depression (O'Connor, 2022). Thus getting negatively impacted by the chronic wage arrears with difficulties for women to take care of their families due to lack of sufficient monetary funds. In addition, women due to gender discrimination in wages have also been observed to endure increasingly strained relationships within their households as the men did not wish to cope with the diminishing economic status and lifestyle. This, nonetheless, made the women feel responsible for being useless and not being able to fulfil their family's demands. This, in turn, led to an increase in domestic violence levels among women with an increase in alcohol consumption among men. Also, rural women were not able to fare well in the past times due to gender discrimination in wages in the economy of Russia leading to an increase in issues of bearing financial drawbacks. A higher rate of rural unemployment is depicted to stand at around 60-70 per cent in Russia, even after women own one-half of the total rural population (Yemtsov et al., 2019). Therefore, the question arises of whether the survival strategies in the current times for the agro-economics sector in Russia are creating any specific changes in the gendered roles and discrimination or not.

Conclusion

The above study concerning gender discrimination in wages in agro economics in Russia helped in noticing that the condition of Russian women is not turning any better even after steps were taken for survival strategies and policies. The major reasons behind the same are the lack of proper focus and prioritising the need of the financial funds needed for the changes. The condition of the women population in Russia due to gendered roles in the agro sector is leading them to face both mental and physical health issues which they cannot even take care of due to the lack of proper monetary back-up needed.

References

Bai, J., Zhao, Y., Yang, D., Ma, Y., & Yu, C. (2022). Secular trends in chronic respiratory diseases mortality in Brazil, Russia, China, and South Africa: a comparative study across main BRICS countries from 1990 to 2019. BMC public health22(1), 1-10.

Davydenko, V. A., Romashkina, G. F., Skripnuk, D. F., & Khudyakova, M. V. (2022). Post-Soviet Transformations in Russian Rural Areas: The Role of Institutions. Agronomy12(7), 1607.

O'Connor, A. (2022). PANDEMIC: A Test of the News. John Hunt Publishing.

Uzun, V., Shagaida, N., & Lerman, Z. (2019). Russian agriculture: Growth and institutional challenges. Land use policy83, 475-487.

Yemtsov, R., Posarac, A., Nagernyak, M., & Albegova, I. (2019). Towards more effective social assistance in Russia: An update of the system performance considering new national target of halving poverty by 2024. World Bank.

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