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Academic Communications Skills

Table of Contents


Impact of procrastination in learning.

Contribution of personality factors on procrastination.

Procrastination’s consequences.



Introduction to Procrastination Characteristics

Procrastination is the state, in which the individual has faced avoidance of performing task, which needs to be done within the deadline. As opined by Tice & Baumeister, (2018), the state can be further forward to intentional delay of handling any work. Hence, it can be sensed that procrastination has negative impact over the mindset of the individual. 

Impact of Procrastination in Learning

Based on the previous analysis, it can be identified that the procrastination can be harmful for students, as this reduces the urgency of learning new things and completing the tasks amongst students. Thus, the grades of the affected student in their schoolwork will decrease as well. As commented by Sirois & Pychyl, (2016), the failure in learning due to the concerned factor can reduce the mental health of the students, which reflects in the overall wellbeing of the individual. In-depth analysis of the factor, it can be identified that the students with procrastination tendency, have moderate level of guilt, frustration, anxiety, stress, and many more. Low self-esteem level and high depression can be considered as other side effect a well (Kroese & de Ridder, 2016).

Based on the comments by Ojo, (2019), it can be identified that procrastination is the part of everyone’s life irrespective of their age and social status. The researcher also includes that the aforementioned factor is proved to be similar to deviance, as in both the cases, the affected individual is looking forward to violate norms. Based on the available research information, it can be recognised that the procrastination is mainly two types, like behavioural and decisional procrastinations (Tice & Baumeister, 2018). In the former types of procrastination, the students can face self-sabotage state, where the individual shift blame to other for his/ her poor performance in examination and other learning fields (Markiewicz & Dziewulska, 2018). Additionally, in decisional procrastination, the students are afraid of making any decisions and are likely to be perfectionist. However, Kroese & de Ridder, (2016), commented that the mentioned state of mind is offering hindrances to students towards their progress in new and advanced learning, which affects their performance in education in a negative note. Hence, it can be sensed that the mentioned factor can impacted the overall performance and health index of the individuals irrespective of their age, especially students in their learning process.

Contribution of Personality Factors on Procrastination

After accumulating relevant information sets from the above discussion, it can be sensed that the personality of individual plays a significant role in managing procrastination. The previous research works can help to identify procrastination as personality problem (Ojo, 2019). Having a passive personality, the individuals cannot motivate themselves to do things, especially new things and this resulted procrastination in behaviour. Moreover, it also can be considered that the decision-making ability of the individuals is affected due to their personality and self-esteem (Şeker, 2018). Based on the information, it also can be said that the procrastination is affected the individuals after they failed to make self-regulation for self motivation.

Based on the comments by Ljubin-Golub, Petričević & Rovan, (2019), the individuals would like to practice self-regulation learning for managing the challenges of procrastination amongst students. In this learning process, they can set their own goals with respect to their requirements and skills. The learning is proved to be helpful for the students, as this discard the issues related to excessive study burden and eliminate frustration factor on the minds of students. According to Schwinger & Otterpohl, (2017), the boring aspects in daily activities are needed to be modified artificially for making those factors interesting for the practitioners. This can improve the motivation level of the students in their learning and one can reduce the challenges of procrastination in personality development (Ackerman & Gross, 2005).

In this context, as the personality plays such pivotal role in managing the procrastination in human psychology, hence, it can be advised that individual needs to measure their personality traits. The measurement can be done by using International Personality Item Pool 50 [Croatian version](IPIP 50; Goldberg, 1999; Mlačić & Goldberg, 2007), in which each five big personality dimensions like Agreeableness, extraversion, emotional stability, and conscientiousness are analysed by 10 aspects. The measurement is being made by likert scale of 1 (extreme inaccurate) and 5 (full accurate) ratings (Mlačić, B., & Goldberg,. 2007).

Procrastination’s Consequences

As the successful follower of the above sections, it can be identified that the self procrastination ha negative impact on the mindset of the students. The factor reduces the participation rate of the students in their class work to gain masters in their learning. The concerned action decreases individual’s standing in learning and affect their mental health along with overall well-being simultaneously (Sirois & Pychyl, 2016). Researches also indicate that the people, especially students, who spend much time on social Medias, are found to be inclined towards individual’s task delay and results high anxiety level (Alblwi et al. 2019). This affects their memorising ability and concentration level as well. These collectively affect their individual performance in learning and other aspects of life.

As the mentioned factor is seemed to be challenging, it requires to be mitigated. Some effective strategies are attached below,



Get out of calendar

Avoid project doing every time and make room for self leisure. However, the schedule developer needs to be realistic about his/ her success as well

Environment optimisation

Students needed to perform that prior to their study every time. Especially they need to avoid social media pinging while studying (Cerrone, 2016)

Forgive yourself

One needs to discard self-beating for past failures and looking forward to future excellence by breaking their current doings into small steps for continuous interest

Be bold

Students needed to be bold in their studying. The fear in learning new tricks and concepts are required to be eliminated for greater success without procrastination

Table 1: Mitigation strategies of procrastination

(Source: Cerrone, 2016)

Conclusion on Procrastination Characteristics

Based on the overall analysis of the mentioned topic, it can be proved that the previously designed thesis statement is proved to be right. To support this view, the above sections have highlighted adequate research reports and comments by the experts, through which the negative impact of procrastination in human mindset and students’ performance in learning can be established.

References for Procrastination Characteristics

Ackerman, D. S., & Gross, B. L. (2005). My instructor made me do it: Task characteristics of procrastination. Journal of Marketing education27(1), 5-13. Retrieved on: 29th August 2020 from:

Alblwi, A., Stefanidis, A., Phalp, K., & Ali, R. (2019, October). Procrastination on social networks: types and triggers. In 2019 6th International Conference on Behavioral, Economic and Socio-Cultural Computing (BESC) (pp. 1-7). IEEE. Retrieved on: 27th August 2020 from:

Cerrone, C. (2016). Doing it when others do: a strategic model of procrastination. MPI Collective Goods Preprint, (2016/10). Retrieved on: 27th August 2020 from:

Kroese, F. M., & de Ridder, D. T. (2016). Health behaviour procrastination: a novel reasoned route towards self-regulatory failure. Health psychology review10(3), 313-325. Retrieved on: 5th September 2020 from:

Ljubin-Golub, T., Petričević, E., & Rovan, D. (2019). The role of personality in motivational regulation and academic procrastination. Educational Psychology39(4), 550-568. Retrieved on: 5th September 2020 from:

Markiewicz, K., & Dziewulska, P. (2018). Procrastination predictors and moderating effect of personality traits. Retrieved on: 5th September 2020 from:

Mlačić, B., & Goldberg, L. R. (2007). An analysis of a cross-cultural personality inventory: The IPIP Big-Five factor markers in Croatia. Journal of personality assessment88(2), 168-177. Retrieved on: 29th August 2020 from:

Ojo, A. A. (2019). The impact of procrastination on students academic performance in secondary schools. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Research5(1), 17-22. Retrieved on: 5th September 2020 from:

Schwinger, M., & Otterpohl, N. (2017). Which one works best? Considering the relative importance of motivational regulation strategies. Learning and individual differences53, 122-132. Retrieved on: 29th August 2020 from:

Şeker, Y. (2018). Personality Traits, Procrastination and Mental Health Problems in (Doctoral dissertation, University of Management and Technology). Retrieved on: 5th September 2020 from:

Sirois, F. M., & Pychyl, T. A. (Eds.). (2016). Procrastination, health, and well-being. Cambridge: Academic Press. Retrieved on: 3rd September 2020 from:,%20Timothy%20A%20Pychyl-Procrastination,%20Health,%20and%20Well-Being-Academic%20Press%20(2016).pdf

Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2018). Longitudinal Study of Procrastination, Performance, Stress, and Health. Self-Regulation and Self-Control, 299-309. Retrieved on: 3rd September 2020 from:

Vargas, M. A. P. (2017). Academic procrastination: The case of Mexican researchers in psychology. American Journal of Education and Learning2(2), 103-120. Retrieved on: 5th September 2020 from:

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Academic Communications Assignment Help

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