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Failure model

Limit equilibrium, Bishop, and simplified Janbu are all used in this article to evaluate slope stability, although the failure model has various flaws that need to be analyzed further.

To begin, the real geometry of the landslide may be oversimplified if a circular slip surface is assumed in the limit equilibrium analysis. A circular model may not adequately represent the underlying failure mechanism when a landslide occurs along an irregular and complicated terrain. Non-circular slip surfaces, which can provide a more accurate assessment of slope stability, should be taken into account.

Second, the report does not adequately discuss or defend its preference for the Bishop and streamlined Janbu procedures. While these techniques are frequently employed, it is not addressed whether or not they are appropriate for this site. Site-specific circumstances and geological parameters should inform the selection of the appropriate methodology.

The sensitivity analysis of the failure model is also not included in the paper. Since differences in geotechnical factors introduce uncertainty into slope stability evaluations, testing the model's sensitivity to these unknowns is crucial. Multiple scenarios and the impact of adjustable parameters on the safety factor should be included in a thorough investigation.

In addition, the research treats the saturated and unsaturated cases independently, without offering a thorough analysis that takes into account transitions between the two. In actuality, slopes' stability can be greatly impacted by fluctuating moisture conditions throughout time. The stability of the slope can fluctuate depending on the groundwater conditions, therefore the failure model needs to take those into account.

Although the study employs standard techniques for slope stability analysis, it raises some red flags due to its simplistic circular slide surface assumption, its lack of explanation for method selection, and its lack of sensitivity analysis. Taking into account non-circular slide surfaces and addressing uncertainties would improve the reliability and application of the failure model, as would doing a more extensive and site-specific investigation.

Site investigation

The site investigation conducted for this paper is an essential part of the research since it provides the basis for learning about the geological and geotechnical features of the El-Rabweh landslide region. However, it is important to critically assess the site study due to its strengths and noticeable limits.


  • Comprehensive Approach: Geological mapping, discontinuity analysis, borehole drilling, and laboratory testing are all part of the extensive methodology taken during the site research. This multi-pronged strategy is admirable since it allows for a more complete comprehension of the site's circumstances.
  • Geological Cross Section: To better visualize and understand the underlying conditions, a geological cross section can be used to represent the slope in the landslide location. It helps illustrate the site's intricate geology.
  • Discontinuity Analysis: Joints and faults are examples of discontinuities, and by analyzing them, we can learn more about the causes of instability. This part of the inquiry helps shed light on the geotechnical hurdles that must be overcome.


  • Borehole Information: Information on the boreholes, such as their precise locations, depths, and spacing, is sketchy at best in the report. This crucial omission makes it difficult to replicate the study and judge the data's representativeness from boreholes. For a thorough site study, a more in-depth description of the drilling program is required.
  • Sampling Strategy: Although laboratory testing is mentioned, the study fails to provide any information about the quantity of samples examined, how those samples were distributed geographically, or how the data were statistically analyzed. This lack of detail casts doubt on the generalizability and accuracy of the laboratory results.
  • Groundwater Conditions: According to the study, the boreholes did not find any sources of free water. Without any hard evidence or regular groundwater monitoring, however, it makes the assumption that the ground is not flooded. Groundwater levels can have a major effect on slope stability and should be carefully considered.
  • Uncertainty and Variability: The study does not address the possibility of error in characterizing the site. Recognizing the uncertainty introduced by the potential for variation in geotechnical parameters to significantly impact stability assessments is essential for doing a thorough examination.

In conclusion, while the site investigation shows a thorough approach, it is hampered by the lack of discussion regarding uncertainty and variability, the assumption of groundwater conditions, and the lack of detailed information about boreholes. Site investigation reliability and relevance to slope stability analysis would be improved by addressing these limitations and giving more detailed data.

Laboratory testing

The study's laboratory testing is essential for deducing the geotechnical qualities of the materials involved in the El-Rabweh landslide. There are, however, a number of issues with the laboratory testing that need to be scrutinized.


  • Laboratory studies such as moisture content, Atterberg limits, grain size analysis, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and direct shear testing are mentioned in the study. Thanks to the variety of tests available, the materials can be thoroughly characterized.
  • Slope stability analyses rely heavily on the calculated values of shear strength factors like cohesion and friction angle. These numbers are produced from controlled laboratory conditions and are crucial for comprehending how the materials function.


  • The amount of samples tested, where they were located, and whether or not they were representative are all unknowns in this paper. Without these specifics, evaluating the validity of the laboratory results is difficult. To assure the validity of the data, a detailed sampling procedure should be given.
  • Laboratory data were not subjected to any statistical analysis, and the paper makes no mention of doing so. In order to assess the consistency and validity of the data, statistical analysis is essential. Without it, understanding the importance of test result variations is impossible.
  • The laboratory tests showed that the shear strength parameters of various materials varied. Neither the root reasons of these changes nor their effects on slope stability are explored in the research. Accurate slope analysis requires an understanding of the factors that contribute to these differences.
  • While the report does note that no free water was found in the boreholes, it assumes the earth is unsaturated without providing supporting data or doing groundwater monitoring. It is important to carefully justify the premise that a material's strength qualities are in any way affected by its saturation situation.

In conclusion, the study's laboratory testing is an important part of assessing the materials' geotechnical qualities. Notable restrictions include, but are not limited to, a lack of sample data, the absence of statistical analysis, variances in shear strength parameters, and assumptions about saturation levels. Slope stability analysis would benefit from more confidence in the geotechnical data if these shortcomings were addressed and a more thorough and transparent laboratory testing technique was provided.

Slope characterisation

The paper's assessment of the slope is an important part of determining the underlying geology and geotechnical causes of the El-Rabweh landslide. However, the slope characterisation has certain gaps and need for development:


  • Exposed rock formations are mapped and some geological information is included in the publication. Having this background on the slope's geology is helpful.
  • Analysis of Discontinuities: Joints and Fault Systems must be characterized in order to locate probable slope failures. Stereographic projection methods are helpful for seeing these details.


  • Lack of Specific Geological Descriptions of the Rock Formations This study does not include specific geological descriptions of the rock formations. The stability of the slope could be better understood with more thorough geological data.
  • There is some discussion of the geometry of the slope in the study, but no cross-sections or comprehensive descriptions are given. For reliable stability evaluations, it is necessary to fully characterize the slope's geometry, including all of its irregularities and fluctuations.
  • Calm and Stress-Free The stress condition within the slope is not addressed in the research. Instability causes can be better grasped with an understanding of the stress distribution.
  • Despite mentioning that different materials have different geotechnical properties, the report doesn't dive into what effect these variances have on slope stability. Accurate analysis necessitates familiarity with geotechnical heterogeneity.

While the paper does some preliminary work in characterizing the slope by mapping geological features and analyzing discontinuities, more precise geological information, detailed descriptions of the slope geometry, consideration of the stress state, and investigation of variations in geotechnical properties are required. Slope stability analysis could benefit from a more solid groundwork if the slope was well characterized.

Slope analysis

The paper's slope study is an essential part of determining the landslide's impact on the El-Rabweh region. Nonetheless, the slope analysis needs to be analyzed critically in numerous places:


  • Slope stability is evaluated using the limit equilibrium approach, as well as the Bishop and simplified Janbu methods, both of which are discussed in this study. In geotechnical engineering, these techniques are commonly used to assess slope stability.
  • Using a geological cross-section to illustrate the incline of the landslide zone is an admirable choice. Visualization of subsurface conditions is helpful for grasping the intricacies of the earth's geology.


  • For the sake of simplicity, let's assume that the landslide has a circular slip surface for the limit equilibrium analysis. Most landslide failures occur on surfaces that are both complicated and uneven. If the failure surface is not perfectly circular, this simplification could result in erroneous stability evaluations.
  • The report does not provide a convincing argument for why the Bishop and simplified Janbu methods were used. While these techniques are frequently employed, it is not addressed whether or not they are appropriate for this site. Site-specific circumstances and geological parameters should inform the selection of the appropriate methodology.
  • The analysis's sensitivity to changes in geotechnical parameters is not discussed in the study. Parameters like cohesion and friction angle vary, which makes it difficult to make accurate assessments of slope stability. In order to assess how changes to parameters affect stability outcomes, sensitivity analyses should be a part of any thorough investigation.
  • Without providing any supporting information or mentioning any sort of groundwater monitoring, the study makes the assumption that the ground is unsaturated. Slope stability is greatly influenced by groundwater levels and should be carefully considered.
  • Although a change from saturated to unsaturated conditions occurs frequently in natural slopes, this transition is not taken into account in the paper. Changes in moisture levels throughout time can have an effect on the stability of slopes. The analysis needs to take these distinctions into consideration.

While the paper makes use of standard techniques for analyzing slope stability, it raises some red flags due to its oversimplified failure model, lack of method justification, lack of sensitivity analysis, assumptions about groundwater conditions, and failure to account for transitions between saturated and unsaturated states. The validity and scope of slope analysis might benefit from a more thorough and location-specific investigation into these restrictions.


In sum, the findings of the study on the El-Rabweh landslide area's geological and geotechnical characteristics shed light on the causes of the site's instability. There are, however, a number of weaknesses and potential enhancements that stand out.

The paper's strengths lie in the in-depth methods it uses to investigate the site (such as geological mapping and discontinuity analysis). It's also admirable that shear strength metrics and geotechnical qualities are determined with laboratory testing. The analysis of slope stability is made more comprehensive by taking into account not just limit equilibrium, but also the Bishop and simplified Janbu methods. However, there are a few major restrictions to be aware of. The trustworthiness of laboratory results is hampered by a lack of specific information regarding boreholes and an all-encompassing sampling method. Concerns about the reliability of the results are raised by the use of assumptive groundwater conditions and the lack of sensitivity analysis in the slope stability assessment. The complicated failure mechanisms of landslides may not be captured by the basic circular slip surface assumption.

Given these constraints, more work needs to be done to strengthen the reliability of site investigations, deal with uncertainties in geotechnical data, and use more advanced approaches to slope stability analysis. Incorporating factors like fluctuating moisture conditions and a more precise geological description would improve the overall study. The report does lay the groundwork for comprehending the El-Rabweh landslide location, but its reliability and application to real-world slope stability assessments would be improved by resolving the stated limitations.

Related Topic:- Flaws in Common Failure Models Limit Equilibrium Bishop and Simplified Janbu

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