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  • The purpose of the paper is to evaluate about the High obesity levels and ethical issues faced in the workplace.
  • Indigenous Peoples particularly in the Australia, suffer from the unacceptable health disparities caused due to the lack of proper nutritional food, facing insecurity leading to rise in obesity and chronic diseases cases. (Deacon-Crouch, 2020)
  • In the Indigenous community suffer from chronic diseases due to the unhealthy lifestyle, having high caloric foods and lack of knowledge.


  • Indigenous food contains rich calorie loaded food, along with high consumption of smoking and alcohol.
  • Lack of nutritional knowledge and low guidance on the balanced diet (Deacon-Crouch, 2020)
  • Lack of awareness to use the recreational facilities like the safe walking parks, cycle lanes, affordable gyms etc.

Ethical concerns are the diversity and acceptance among Indigenous people and nations, where the indigenous ethics can resonate in the honour, trust, honesty, and humility; which is the reflection on the communities, having the necessary possibility to follow collective and respectful relationship in the land. to the collective and embody a respectful relationship with the land.

Policies Health system performance

  • Policy-level actions like to control and work on the Health system performance at every levels.
  • Mandatory and supporting in the voluntary food nutritional intake (Pringle, et al., 2019).
  • Including the interpretive food labelling systems used for all sort of products.
  • Following the food pricing policies, included in the incentivise healthy products and using the disincentives unhealthy food and beverages.

Health system performance - Indigenous people should be guided about the healthy food and adopting the basic exercise regime, as the Indigenous people faces Health system performance  status due to the lack of choices and availability of food.  The Health system performance  policy needs to be followed on the actions, which modified on the nutrition structures and systems supporting in the food supply, having an availability to modify, accessible, which would make the food available with high quality evidence. Indigenous people, be it in the urban and rural areas, can follow high quality evidences, controlling food and nutrition policy actions.

Policy Nourishing Food policy

1. Nourishing Food policy is based on understanding and using the food policies, which can prevent obesity and prevent any necessary ways it improve the dietary behaviours

2. Nourishing food policy, is all about to focus on the dietary behaviours, improve availability and having the acceptance to overcome unhealthiest (Deacon-Crouch, et al., 2022).

Nourishing food policy framework is to prevent obesity, through monitoring dietary behaviours, improve availability, affordability and acceptability of the healthy diets.  Decreasing unhealthy behaviour  and controlling diet, can help to support long term health benefits and reduce obesity overall. Nourishing food policy, is an attempt to reduce obesity and improvise the nutritional diet, through providing the actual measures of taking good and balanced diet.  Too much carbohydrates and sugary diet can be harmful, guiding the Indigenous people to reduce fatty food or the fried food content.

Practicality of Plan

Post Colonisation, Indigenous people were on the survival technique, presents more than a source of nutrients; at the same time, can affect the practicality of plan, by making Indigenous community remain focused on the social, emotional and spiritual well being factor. Land, family, history and culture, and making them connect to the social, emotional and spiritual well being (Pringle, et al.,2019).

Promoting diets, providing Indigenous people free seminars, webinars where they can learn about the on-going nutritional values.

Practicality Plan

  • Control on the Alcohol,-Indigenous People are habitual of the alcohol and having the illicit drugs consumption, that causes hormonal imbalances and leads to obesity (Fatima, et al., 2020).
  • Immunisation- Growing health problems, diseases, facing the problem in the controlling the medication, using the immunisation and controlling the growing problem in the spread of diseases.

Indigenous diets traditionally had the whole foods and wild foods, but when introducing the policy like Nourishing and the Health system performance  policy, then the Indigenous community ethically have to be made conscious, when it comes to connecting with the land, animals and plants.

Nutrition-Having the  nutritional status achieved by the Indigenous people are more influenced by the socio- economic disadvantage and even affected with the changing geographical, environmental and social factors.

Physical activity- Practical plan should include physical activity, such as counting on the calories and doing minimum of one activity can be helpful and beneficial.

Body Weight- The proportional size of the body weight, control on diet and how much weight can be proportionality be controlled, is important factor.


Each of the stakeholders has the important role in the community engagement

Indigenous community- Support in the indigenous community, in order to improve their health, reduce obesity and any health related risks.

Government – support from government by aiding in the funds, support in the programs and policies, which would motivate the indigenous community in their contributing role.

Volunteers-Support in the exercising the gyms, recreational facilities and overall programs that would help it on-going.

Health Practitioners -constant health check ups, routine checking of the health and analysing the overall set ups.

Partnerships-partnering in the health outcomes, supports and different routines outlooks (Deacon-Crouch, 2020).

Research Proposal

  • Research aim would be on the cardiovascular and the diabetes types people, age group and growing concern in the gender.
  • Research through secondary sources, about the programs and policies related to the cardiovascular and related disease.
  • Researching through published sources, data collected journals, magazines ,newspapers and verified sources in between 2019-2023.
  • Surveys and Google forms, given health practitioners consulting for cardiovascular and diabetes can determine age groups and gender of the people.
  • Data analysis and synthesizing the information by collating the information.

Research would include literature review and including research method especially focused on the secondary data resources, including data analysis, evaluation and including data collection.

Research schedule would be 6 months, were the initial two months would be on the research analysis, data collection and information. Rest information would be collected from the secondary published sources, collated into the research report.

Ethical Issues

  • Policies like health system performance specific to the Indigenous people, in planning, program development and research (Australian Government Department of Health and Aged Care, 2022).
  • Ethical issue such as empowerment, trust and mutual respect in creating awareness for obesity and cardiovascular issue among Indigenous people.

Health system performance  specific to the Indigenous Australians would help to eradicate obesity with the nutrition. Health programs like high quality, comprehensive, culturally appropriate, and supporting health care can provide support to  regional, rural and remote locations across Australia. Different range in the food and nutrition policy requires to follow targeting individual behaviour changes, more versatile to the systems and environments. Following norms. Health System performance framework includes nutrition labelling, healthy food, includes economics tools, having food marketing labelling unhealthy food, using information campaigns, counselling  and including education/skills (Kelly,2022). Targeted policies can improve health, taking universal approach and target whole populations by reducing inequalities and disadvantage people. Providing support in the  overcoming risks and reducing inequities (Kelly,2022).

Proposal to Access and Measure the Proposed Plan

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2021–2031

The plan focuses on

  • preventing and make healthy decisions
  • effectively navigate the health system (Australian Government Department of Health and Aged Care, 2022).

This includes through the delivery of health care that is:

  • place based
  • person centred
  • culturally safe and responsive.

Plan should focus on holistic and place-based care and policy follows National Gap, enabling access to services that are prevention-focused, culturally safe and responsive, equitable and free of racism. Introducing  the Exercise and recreational sports activities where the people can be motivated for the daily exercise regime, working on the physical activity more can help in the long term benefits.

Implementation Policies

The plan implementation includes partnerships and communities with best results, overcoming any poor health outcomes by focusing on the cultural capability ,safety and security to maintain barriers. By focusing on the  vital and existing efforts to follow Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) by supporting the high quality, culturally safe, responsive, focusing on the trauma aware and healing informed.


  • To conclude, Indigenous populations supports in the generalizability such as the nutritional support and  balanced diets.
  • Even for the Indigenous people having a limited non-English-speaking, laving a socio disadvantage problem and low income can be a major challenges.

Indigenous community having the highest obesity and cholesterol problem faces the problem of the language, having a limited knowledge and income, but at the same time implementation of the nutritional policies, with the lack of counselling and guidance can be a worrisome problem. By targeting the Indigenous groups, providing them in-depth knowledge, support and counselling about the balanced diet, minimizing the salt, sugar and fried intake can help reducing cholesterol problem. Policies like Health system performance  and Nourishing framework can help to support in the long term in controlling the growing health challenges.


Australian Government Department of Health and Aged Care. (2022, November 15). The new National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2021–2031.

Deacon-Crouch, M., Begg, S., & Skinner, T. (2020). Is sleep duration associated with overweight/obesity in Indigenous Australian adults?. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-13.

Deacon-Crouch, M., Skinner, I., Tucci, J., Begg, S., Wallace, R., & Skinner, T. (2022). Association between indigenous status and Body Mass Index (BMI) in Australian adults: Does sleep duration affect the relationship?. Plos one, 17(2),

Fatima, Y., Al Mamun, A., Bucks, R. S., & Charles Skinner, T. (2020). Late bedtime and body mass index gain in indigenous Australian children in the longitudinal study of indigenous children. Acta Paediatrica, 109(10), 2084-2090.

Kelly, R., Hatzikiriakidis, K., & Kuswara, K. (2022). Inequities in obesity: Indigenous, culturally and linguistically diverse, and disability perspectives. Public Health Research & Practice, 32(3).  10.17061/phrp3232225

Pringle, K. G., Lee, Y. Q., Weatherall, L., Keogh, L., Diehm, C., Roberts, C. T., ... & Rae, K. M. (2019). Influence of maternal adiposity, preterm birth and birth weight centiles on early childhood obesity in an Indigenous Australian pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood cohort

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