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Key Issue and Organizational Change

Impetus for Change

Notably, it is essential to create the impetus for change since getting the company in that spirit might enable prospective changes to flow and establish naturally even without resistance (White, 2019). With regards to the City of Swan, there are various impetuss for change of its business operations from a 9 to 5 business to a 24 by 7 365 days operations for all of the incoming client correspondences which entail live chats, phone calls, and emails. The first impetus was the inadequate management of the external provider or contractor who was previously responsible for offering 24/7 correspondence services to the City of Swan. Besides, the government authority had to bear higher costs when taking services from outside in comparison to in-house services. Another driver for such a change was the inability of the authority to fulfill its KPI of 80% call resolution at the initial point when taking services from outside. Moreover, the outside contractor has no access to the service systems of the City of Swan which prevents it from offering entire service solutions for a client calling leading to poor service for the community. Also, the community was not satisfied with the amount they were charged in return for the services provided.

Essential Components and Processes of Change Process

  • Prepare the company for change: The City of Swan prepares the employees by telling them the benefits of moving to 24/7 operations for client inquiries. The team was being prepared for change by seeking their interests, and feelings, knowing the need for training required, and so on. The company has successfully helped workers to identify and comprehend the necessity for change.
  • Develop a vision and plan for change: Management, after becoming ready to embrace changes, should establish a comprehensive, practical, and tactical plan to bring it about (Cameron & Green, 2019). The City of Swan has to decide on strategic goals, KPIs, project stakeholders, and the scope of the project. However, the decisions about team engagement, culture and process-related actions, and stakeholder management were only planned by the company.
  • Implement the changes: The next element of the change process of to adhere to all steps delineated in the plan to execute the needed change (Onyeneke & Abe, 2021). About the implementation of change, the City has successfully assisted employees and the entire team by providing all information regarding services, workflows, and so on. Risk anticipation was also done by the management of the company.
  • Implant changes in company culture: The change manager should stop a reversion to the previous state after the completion of the change initiative (Haggard & Kaufman, 2021). The company has successfully shifted the system to the cloud to embed change in the culture of the City. Furthermore, it has attained control over the system as well.
  • Review progress and analyze results: This provides valued insights and lessons that might be leveraged in forthcoming change efforts (Lee et al., 2020). About monitoring and reviewing progress, the customer experience managers in the City of Swan reviewed thirteen measures of success. The team has benchmarked the data by reviewing monthly meetings and monthly reports.

Analysis and Evaluation of the Change

Lewin's model of change management focuses on the necessity to diagnose the vital actions of a change program to approach its goals effectively.  Lewin established a three-phase model for change management which entails unfreezing, changing procedures, and refreezing (Galli, 2019).


 This stage is deemed a preparatory phase which encompasses procedures like an assessment of the present condition, recognition of deficiencies, figuring out the changes required, and removal of change hindrances that might hamper the change implementation. It is needed to certify the workforce's stimulation and enthusiasm for change. The crux of this phase is to lessen the factors that preserve a company's behavior in its current state (Jami Pour & Hosseinzadeh, 2021). In this regard, the City of Swan, to ensure a better understanding of the change program, has conducted weekly meetings before the shift to a 24/7 business model. In such meetings, there were discussions about the objectives, testing, verification, and so on with the entire team. This was done to secure acceptance by assisting management as well as workers in comprehending the need for the change. Nevertheless, the company does not have a robust change management process delineating the goals, structure, and achievements. Therefore, it can be said that the company did not provide adequate support to workforces who felt resistance towards the change program. It is however important for the City's change leaders to play a vital role in the change program. They need to consider past experiences into consideration that might impact the mindset of the individuals. The leaders should adopt a transformational leadership style to develop a vision for the City of Swan and by offering directions to workers to create and establish a newer means of thinking. Therefore, transformational leadership will help influence the readiness of workers to change, mainly wherein the evolving change is applicable (Cortellazzo et al., 2019).

Change process (Implementation)

This stage entails actions vital to accomplish the intended change like planning, comprehensive communications, and workforces learning to overcome the uncertainties of the change process. In this phase, the company should certify that each team member engages and reaches the common objective (Jaaron et al., 2022). In this regard, the team members of the City of Swan were engaged throughout the process of testing, and the whole project was performed using the agile methodology of project management which allowed constant communication and updates within the team. The company has successfully demonstrated to the team how the project will work to avoid any hindrances. However, the company has not supported the team members in terms of motivating them to perform complex activities during the project. The biggest strength during the change implementation was the engagement of members at entire levels of the company ranging from the frontline workforce and clients to the executives. The entire feedback was gathered and prioritized for the ideal level of achievement. Also, scenario testing was another strength of the change implementation. It is noteworthy that the workforce's behavior might impact the implementation of the change procedure. Nevertheless, the company's capability to bring about a specific change relies mainly on its imaginative competencies (Khang et al.,2023). Therefore, it is required for the City of Swan to inspire its workers to engage in the development and execution of imaginative ideas. Numerous of the workforces in the City of Swan were found to be resistant to change programs since they perceived the new business model did not align with them. On the other hand, numerous workforces in the team were sufficiently engaged via numerous planning sessions to understand the goals of a new project. It would mean that the City has not encouraged team members to engage in giving innovative ideas rather it relied on just shifting the model of business. It is however suggested to the company that the change leaders in the City of Swan Authority must comprehend the vital forces which may enable effective implementation of the change program.


It entails certifying that change is sustainable and fixed in the company and its elements are part of the company's structures, rules, systems, and work processes. This phase stabilizes the change process in a novel equilibrium stage to certify that the newer means of working are entrenched, preserved, and cemented against regression. It is performed via novel recruitment, induction sessions, performance management systems, and more (El-Dirani et al., 2019). In this regard, the City of Swan Company was not found to take any action after the rolling out of the change. The organization emphasized the success of the project instead of ongoing change management. Besides, the City has not celebrated the change program's success. It could assist individuals in finding closures. The company did not thank them for enduring a painful time and assisted them in believing that future change initiatives would also be successful. For the change program to be successful and endure in the long term, the City of Swan monitored and reviewed it on a timely basis. Concerning this stage, the City has also not provided rewards and feedback to team members to adopt new behaviors and to observe the execution of change.


Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2019). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools, and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Cortellazzo, L., Bruni, E., & Zampieri, R. (2019). The role of leadership in a digitalized world: A review. Frontiers in Psychology10, 1938.

El-Dirani, A., Hussein, M. M., & Hejase, H. J. (2019). The role of human resources in change management: An exploratory study in Lebanon. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences5(6), 1-13.

Galli, B. J. (2019). Comparison of change management models: similarities, differences, and which is most effective? R&D Management in the Knowledge Era: Challenges of Emerging Technologies, 605-624.

Haggard, S., & Kaufman, R. (2021). The anatomy of democratic backsliding. Journal of Democracy32(4), 27-41.

Jaaron, A. A., Hijazi, I. H., & Musleh, K. I. Y. (2022). A conceptual model for adoption of BIM in construction projects: ADKAR as an integrative model of change management. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management34(6), 655-667.

Khang, A., Jadhav, B., & Birajdar, S. (2023). Industry Revolution 4.0: Workforce Competency Models and Designs. In Designing Workforce Management Systems for Industry 4.0 (pp. 11-34). CRC Press.

Lee, S. B., Song, M., Kim, S., & Won, J. H. (2020). Change Monitoring at Expressway Infrastructure Construction Sites Using Drone. Sensors & Materials32.

Onyeneke, G. B., & Abe, T. (2021). The effect of change leadership on employee attitudinal support for planned organizational change. Journal of Organizational Change Management34(2), 403-415.

White, K. M. (2019). Change theory and models: Framework for translation. Translation of evidence into nursing and healthcare59.

Jami Pour, M., & Hosseinzadeh, M. (2021). An integrated framework of change management for social CRM implementation. Information Systems and e-Business Management19(1), 43-75.

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