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Patient Assessment Information

Before administration of any medication, it is important to take the patient assessment information. It allows the deciding the right pathway for the drug. Before providing the drug, I ensured to perform the common test for the patient that makes me able to decide on the right dose and right time. I took the information in terms of the current situation and what medical history the patient holds.

Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Laxsol

Pharmacokinetics is defined as the phenomenon of how a medication is affected within the body as soon as it travels within the system. In four phases, the process will happen that is absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (Ailabouni et al., 2016). On the other hand, pharmacodynamics is defined as the effects of the medication on the system in terms of efficacy, potency and mechanism of action.

The Pharmacodynamics of Laxsol is used in the management and treatment of constipation. It belongs to the stool softener class of drugs. It is an anionic surfactant that can lower the surface tension at the surface of oil-water interfaces that allows the water and lipids to penetrate in stool. It helps in the hydration and softening of the faecal material that is resulting in natural defecation (Skokou et al.,2022). Both drugs (Docusate and Sennoside) allow water in the intestine which eases the movement of the intestine. It is acting in the onset of 6-72 hours orally and 2-15 minutes rectally.

Pharmacokinetics of Laxsol, it was added directly provided to the Jejunum where the action will lead to the increase in the secretion of water, sodium, chloride and potassium. In addition, decrease the absorption of glucose and bicarbonate. Firstly, it is absorbed by the intestinal walls where it affects the concentration of ions (Gurrera et al., 2022). Secondly, it triggers the increase in the intercellular cyclic AMP that leads the cells to work and improve the condition. Acute oral LD50 in rats is 1900 mg/kg.

Variables Intervening the Pharmacokinetic Phases of the Drug

The selected drug Laxsol belongs to the laxative category which is a type of medicine that helps in emptying the bowel. It is widely used for increasing the amount of fibre in the diet, drinking plenty of fluids and taking regular exercise (Emmanuel et al., 2017). But still, there are some variables lies that are interfering with the pharmacokinetics phases of the drug. It does not seem to be a problem in the initial few days but starts frequently adding the burden that is making the patient feel unpleasant side effects and adversely impacting the quality of life. Also, if the patient has missed any dose then the missed dose will lead to negative effects on the bowel movement. It will require the constant tracking of dosage so that any kind of side effects in a patient can be reduced. Apart from this, it is seen that the dosage will make the patient experience headache and other combinations of side effects.

  • Metabolism is impacted by the liver and makes the drug undergoes first-pass metabolism that is both active and inactive types (Hoppe et al., 2019). Any changes in liver metabolism will lead to a decrease in the rate of the medication metabolism.
  • Distribution of the drug Laxsol will initiate intestinal muscle contraction and movement of stool outside the body. It is noticed that too long or too high a quantity will result in damage to the nerves.
  • The route of excretion is biliary excretion, the onset of excretion would take place in 6-72 hours orally and 2-15 minutes rectally.

Changes in any of the parameters would lead to the drug metabolism getting compromised (Tevaga, 2017). It is the reason for the altered rate of metabolism of the drug and resulting in the side effects in the system.

Benefits of Using the Urug (Laxsol) Concerning Other Drugs

The benefits that Laxsol offers concerning other medications present in the same class will involve the treatment of a wide range of constipation. Like occurs in association with piles, anal fissures and bed-ridden patients. It prevents the absorption of water in the colonic lumen and gives stimulation to the colon’s propulsive activities. In addition, it increases the osmotic gradient that is drawing the water from the gut and helps in the evacuation of the bowel (Alhamad et al., 2020). It is one of the effective categories of drugs present that is helping in restoring normal bowel movement in comparison to other drugs. The drug is present in a wide range of forms that are making it easy to take up by patients with various needs.

Linking the Practices to the Nursing Council

For this, I adhered to domain four of the nursing council which is about the Medicines amendment act 2013. In this standard, I will be working according to the regulatory and legislative framework that is making the controlled prescription of the drug. It will make me able to work according to the legislation codes, scope and specific areas of practice that make allow the right practices within the New Zealand guidelines (Tan et al., 2021). In addition, it helps in making me accountable and responsible for the practices. Also, I will be able to work by carrying out the risk benefits assessment that is enabling the relevant intervention and treatment application to take place. By this, it would become possible to prescribe the drug according to the age-related. Apart from this, it allows the understanding of the pharmacovigilance and monitoring of drugs. Application of the standards in nursing practices would help in the delivery of drugs to the patient in the best manner. It will be taking care of the facts and information that is there to share with the patient. By this, the side effects towards the patient can be introduced. All these facts and considerations will allow the administration of the drugs in various cases by eliminating the risk to the patient (Nursing Council n.a.). It also makes me able as an RN to ensure the safety and right practices to be delivered. By this, the number of fatal cases can be overcome and healthcare quality is going to be improved.


Ailabouni, N. J., Nishtala, P. S., Mangin, D., & Tordoff, J. M. (2016). General practitioners’ insight into deprescribing for the multimorbid older individual: a qualitative study. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 70(3), 261-276.

Alhamad, H., Patel, N., & Donyai, P. (2020). Towards medicines reuse: a narrative review of the different therapeutic classes and dosage forms of medication waste in different countries. Pharmacy, 8(4), 230.

Emmanuel, A., Johnson, M., McSkimming, P., & Dickerson, S. (2017). Laxatives Do Not Improve Symptoms of Opioid-Induced Constipation: Results of a Patient Survey. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.), 18(10), 1932–1940.

Gurrera, R. J., Gearin, P. F., Love, J., Li, K. J., Xu, A., Donaghey, F. H., & Gerace, M. R. (2022). Recognition and management of clozapine adverse effects: a systematic review and qualitative synthesis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 145(5), 423-441.

Hoppe, L. K., Muhlack, D. C., Koenig, W., Brenner, H., & Schöttker, B. (2019). The Associations of Diuretics and Laxatives Use with Cardiovascular Mortality. An Individual Patient-Data Meta-analysis of Two Large Cohort Studies. Cardiovascular drugs and therapy, 33, 567-579.

Nursing Council. (n.a.). Code of Conduct standards and guidelines.

Skokou, M., Karavia, E. A., Drakou, Z., Konstantinopoulou, V., Kavakioti, C. A., Gourzis, P., ... & Andreopoulou, O. (2022). Adverse drug reactions in relation to clozapine plasma levels: a systematic review. Pharmaceuticals, 15(7), 817.

Tan, M. S., Honarparvar, F., Falconer, J. R., Parekh, H. S., Pandey, P., & Siskind, D. J. (2021). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between clozapine and norclozapine serum levels and peripheral adverse drug reactions. Psychopharmacology, 238, 615-637.

Tevaga, S. (2017). Care of a subarachnoid haemorrhage patient. Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand, 23(6), 34.

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