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Infrastructure Design

Bituminous Surfacing

The bituminous surfacing required is 30 mm

AADT from question – 4500

HV = 11%

DF = 1,LD =1,DESIGN PERIOD = 20 years

CBR subgrade = 2

HVAG – AASDT X HV X DF X LD X 365 X CGF X NHVAG = 4.6 X 10^5

DESA = HVAG X ESA = 4.2 X 10 ^5

Total thickness required for the material with CBR 3% is 400 mm

To evaluate the material required to produce 400 mm thickness consider the properties of granular materials

Granular materials available for use is

Crushed rock base CBR >=80%

Crushed rock upper base with CBR >=30%

Gravel lower sub base with CBR >=15%

100 mm granular material needs best quality with CBR 80 % and available materials are with crushed rock base for suitable layer

The material below the base layers must have a CBR of 30 % and upper sub base and base materials are suitable. Upper sub base quality is lower and decided rather base material . the minimum layer thickness is 100 mm.

At depth of 250 mm the pavement material require a minimum design CBR of 13 % to deformation process and all granular material meet with minimum strength requirements. Gravel is selected with lower cost . The layer considers to be 150 mm (300-200 mm thick ) and placed in two layers

Material type thickness


Sela surface sprayed


Crushed rock base


Crushed rock – upper base


Crushed rock – lower base



Subgrade CBR = 3 %

Design traffic = 10^5 ESA from the graph

The design is with crushed rock and lime stabilized sub grade

Austroads 2017 – long term CBR 10 % strength has been adopted for lime stabilizing with 4 % lime

Trial thickness for sub grade lime stabilizing

A trial thickness of 150 mm is selected

The CBR of stabilized sub grade shall be minimum of 15 % or value determined from CBR test which is 10 % or value from support of underlying material .

Adopted CBR deisgn for lime stabilized material is 6 %


CBR of 6 % minimum requires 280 mm cover depth and the properties are such that crushed rock base for CBR>80% AND




Here from the figure 100 mm thick crushed rock is proposed and additional 180 mm granular material is required in addition to the base

The material immediate;y below granular base has to be atleast 30 % CBR


Check whether the thickness of cover in situ sub grade is sufficient

From the below table the first pavement option is summarised and here total thickness of in situ sub grade is 430 mm an dminimum thickness of 380 mm is required in situ subgrade

Material type thickness

Sporayed seal -

Crushed rock – 100

Crushed rock – upper base – 100

Crushed rock – upper sub base – 180

Lime stabilized design with CBR 6 % - 150

Material type thickness


Sela surface sprayed


Crushed rock upper base


Crushed rock – upper sub base


Lime stabilized design CBR 6%


Circly Method of Pavement Design

Pavement method for mechanistic pro

Pavement structure and cost analysis study

The automatic parametric analysis is used for computing the thickness of each latyers (layer 2) and determined thickness with minimum cost

Layer 3 is constrained with minimum thickness of 100 mm and thickness of second layer is 220 mm

Cost analysis from graph

Environmental Impacts of Asphalt Pavement

Issues of environmental activities in public administration of road affairs are to be considered with higher importance and identification and quantification of proper road materials are to be ensured and the effects of the environment are to be analyzed and evaluated in comparison with the modular structure and bill of quantities. Not only economic analysis but also environmental analysis are to be done concerning the tenders of the project and all road cells have to take consideration regarding this. Life cycle assessment shall be conducted to know the technical and environmental aspects of road construction. The calculation of the environmental impact of road construction is a tedious process and its available options for economic and environmental suitability shall be measured and multi-criteria analysis has to be done for evaluation of road works and choose the best method. Some of the obstacles in the design include poor flexibility in structural and organizational matters and lack of awareness program by the concerned producers and the difficulty in defining and characterization of green products and services and technical and organizational difficulties may be controlled up to greater extends.

References for Pavement Design Analysis

Abdullahi, A. U., Noor Amila Wan, A. Z., Mohd, F. K., & Arazi, I. (2013). Stakeholder Perceptions on Achieved,Benefits of PFI Procurement Strategy. Modern Applied Science, Volume 7(4), pp.31-40.

Bertoldi, P., Bornás Cayuela, D., Monni, S., & Piers de Raveschoot, R. (2010). Guidebook: How to Develop aSustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP). International journal of engineering,Volume 152,pp25-30.

Cantisani, G., Loprencipe, G., & Primieri, F. (2011). The Integrated Design of Urban Road Intersections: A CaseStudy. International Journal of transportation engineerng, Volume 426,pp. 722-728.

D’Andrea, A., Bonora, V., & Drago, D. (2004). Asphalt concrete with bottom ash: Environmental aspects.Proceedings of the International Conference of Restoration, Recycling and Rejuvenation Technology forEngineering and Architecture Application held in Cesena, Italy, June 7-11, pp. 56-63.

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