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Infrastructure Design

The aim of data model is to support the use of irregular roads on two-lane, rural roads with minimal crossing opportunities. The analysis indicates that the length of the crossing lane is interrelated with the interval between crossing lanes with two main parameters. Opportunities for passing are modelled upon declining traffic. Moreover, the wait benefits rise as ADT increases. Increased truck percentage causes more delay that means more passing lanes are required. A high percentage of trucks create operating challenges in decreased service levels, accelerated passing, aborted passes and dissatisfaction with the driver. An economic review is carried out to demonstrate profit-cost (B / C) ratios for various circumstances. Reduced queues, improved commuting options and an estimated decrease in injuries contribute to commuting time savings. Taken together, these performance parameters benefit from Super Two road construction implementation.

The geometry Super Two is simply an effort for the two rural roads, whose ADT does not justify upgrade to a complete four lane cross section, to have increased road capability. The basis of this analysis was a standard two-lane road cross section of approximately 13.4 m (44 feet). Figure shows the cross section Super Two, where an expansion of 60 cm (2 feet) is needed for the cross-section to have a wide shoulder on the side going through. Texas drivers are known to take a shoulder to get a moving car on a rural road quicker. The move to the Super Two cross-section then effectively strips the Texas drivers of the lane. The shoulder provision is introduced to guarantee that the economic analysis is conservative and comes from talks with various engineers working with TxDOT who believe the shoulder is ideal to secure the side of the floor.

The recent legal alteration of the speed limit changed rural two-lane double-lane traffic significantly. In past years, heavy trucks used the highway system as they gave the least route of opposition, at a speed limit of 55 mile per hour (mph) (88 km / h). Although the distance was actually much longer, journeying times were nearly the same as the use of rural roads due to the delays of travelling through the towns. This calculation was updated by the current speed limit. By being able to drive more easily, truck traffic will save time by driving on remote roads more closely to the last destinations. This has boosted the proportion of truck traffic. As a result, the number of passageways needed for rural motorways by passenger vehicles is growing with large vehicles. This is a direct function of the acceptable speeds of the different vehicle types. Passenger cars are limited to 60 mph (96 k / h) while school buses have to travel at a speed of not less than 50 mph (80 k / h). This relative speed differential allows drivers on open terrain such as in West Texas to be tempted, for three reasons, to perform likely unsafe movements. First, since the ground is relatively level, you assume it has the requisite distance from the sight though it is always not. Secondly, they are more assured that the travel is better because of the general lightness of the traffic.

The driving activity unique to Texas is further exacerbating this disorder. In rural areas it is common to pull off the shoulder to encourage a passing car to pass more easily without having to pull entirely on the oncoming route. Currently, this phenomenon has been brought about to the extent that a car on the incoming road that sees a movement passing ahead of it pulls onto the shoulder and thereby renders a three-lane road momentarily out of a two lane one. Although the courtesy of West Texas drivers speaks for itself, the habit causes unsafe conditions, not to mention the structural damage to the paved shoulders. There must be two conditions to alter driving habits. First, drivers must be mindful that a slower travelling car is available in a fair period of travel time, and secondly, drivers must also realize, regardless of oncoming traffic status, that safe driving opportunities exist.

An expansion of these rural roads and a 4-lane road are an optimal solution for this problem. But it is not commercially sustainable between $1.0 and $2.0 million per mile in building costs. The rational alternative is to define the quantities warranted by the inclusion of the normal passageways and to establish different potential architecture alternatives. Many states have passageways along two-lane highways where visual gaps on hills and horizontal curves are impossible to access. However, only a few have attempted to give these lanes ample view distances on the field.

There were three main stages in this process. The first was a literature benchmarking study, the existing design requirements and cross-sections of TxDOT, and the assembly of the required design specifications, signing / striping and limited circulation volumes. The outcomes of this initial effort defined possible solutions that were evaluated in the next step to provide this power. It also calculated requirements for traffic justifying the traffic volume (maximal and minimal ADT) to allow for a viable solution to 4-lane roads. The second phase included a systematic review of feasibility to determine each Super Two alternative 's costs and possible benefits. Using queuing theory (Khasnabis etal. 1980), the gains and costs related to delayed differential speed and development were calculated. At the beginning, a small simulation of Monte Carlo.

Arrival and Service Rate Computation

The dynamic characteristics of traffic flow are a significant challenge in applying the theory to a traffic problem. The service rate (Q) measurement should involve the effect of the truck percentage on the service rate. The service rate, Q, is then determined with the following equation 3. In rural, two-lane two way highways under continuous flow conditions, this equation makes the full service volumes (SVs). In order to find a service rate, the service volume can then be translated to service rate (Q) in a directional factor in one direction (for the sample, 0.6 is presumed). Service volume Furthermore, Q values are replaced by 1 and 2 equations. In comparison to the estimation of service rate, the arrival rate (q) is derived directly from ADT values. The arrival rate is then a modified ADT value for a full amount of traffic in one direction.

SV = 2000 (v/c) WL TL

Where:SV = Service volume (mixed vehicles per hour, total for both directions)

v/c = Volume to capacity ratio

WL = Adjustment for lane width and lateral clearance at a given level of service TL = Truck factor at a given level of service

From the Highway Capability Guide was taken the lane factor (TL) and the lane width and lateral clearance (WL). Volume values are derived by power ratio. A service level of B is expected to approximate the rural conditions of medium volume considered in this report. The ratio volume to capacity (v / c) is determined by the possibility of a 1500 feet long vision. Volume to capacity ratios are interpolated with the shift in the possibility of a gap of 1,500 miles. Since the road is situated on a level terrain, it is 100 percent sure to pass. However, due to the available gap, this likelihood would shift for two cars. The difference in the ADT amount is determined by equation 4, which implies that the Poisson distribution is determined in the oncoming traffic. Provided that the chance of visibility is 100%. Equation 4 means that the likelihood of creating a time difference, allowing a safe passage, will decrease as road traffic volume increases; this lower likelihood will minimize the operation to skill ratio derived from the Highway Power Manual. The lower number of vehicles is in opposite direction per unit time (together with the direct function ADT values).

It is assumed that a passing line 's optimal length is regulated because the average queue is required to resolve the slow-moving vehicle that caused the queue to develop. The optimal amount of time it takes to form the line behind the next slow-moving vehicle is connected to the passing portions. The concept has a length based on the normal tail plus one car as a safety measure. Because arrival rates are supposed to be modelled by the distribution of Poisson, this gives an efficient length, allowing safe passage for around 85% of the projected distribution of tail sizes.

Cost Benefit Analysis

The benefit derived from the concept geometry must outweigh the cost of implementation to justify the implementation of the Super Two system for the public project. The following can usually be found in dividing the annual equal gain by the annual expense equal to determine the gain / costs ratio. If the resulting value reaches that of unity, then the proposal is commercially sustainable and justified by its underlying assumptions at the limits placed on the study. The benefits are described as the sum of the savings from the crash and the sum of the saved time due to the diminishing delay in the completion of this study of a Super Two road design. The advantages are measured accordingly. The savings in the injury costs was extracted from the Equation 5 formula (Taylor and Jain, 1988). Equation 5 's constant 1,36 is used to translate 1988 to 1998 dollars.

Queuing theory is used to model the dynamics of the traffic flow along a two-way two-lane highway. On such roads the likelihood of a slow-moving car is limited. Queues are noted. Arrival and operation prices and their delivery are the two fundamental elements of the queuing. If the number of vehicles in a queue rises, the rate of arrival rises and openings decreasing. Knowing these conditions, the average number of cars waiting for the slow-moving driver to overtake can be determined. The Poisson Arrival Function can be used to model light to medium traffic conditions on a rural road. The estimated number of vehicles at queue (E(m)) as well as the average time of waiting (E(w)) can be determined using equation 1 and 2 if the negative exponential service rate distribution is assumed for vehicles in queue.

Where q is the rate of arrival and Q is the rate of operation, the two conditions are defined as the number of vehicles in each unit. Equation 1, E(m) indicates that arrival rates are rising exponentially, or service rates are declining. Increased ADT on a path contributes to both a rise in arrival rate and a reduction in service rate. If arrival rates and service rates are similar to each other, the lines are usually persistent. The model refers to the simulation of rural road conditions by this action of a queuing principle. For the calculation of the lateral acceleration, the total number of vehicles in a queue obtained from queuing theory. Average time spent in the queue is used to measure time savings that the creation of passing lanes would benefit passenger vehicles.

Construction Costs

A conceptional configuration of the amount of road that must be upgraded to Super Two cross-sectional geometry shall be calculated in order to quantify the resulting construction expense per 100 km of roads. Furthermore, an average 60 cm (2 feet) expansion would be considered to be the upgrade. The cost of the Super Two geometry implementation is merely the cost of new signs and streaks, if it is decided that a small shoulder on the side of the passage is not required. The construction of the principles starts with the successful length of a passing lane for Super Two. The drivers of the passenger cars will be able to take the slow-moving truck safely with a duration that is successful. The trucks should also have ample length to fuse into the passageway. Tapered sections at the beginning and end of the road will provide this space efficiently

Literature and Related Case Study Findings

The operation of two-lane rural and residential roads has become particularly involved in the last few years. Growing the amount of traffic and declining funding levels are some of the key factors. A major effect on rural two-track, double roads is triggered by the latest regulatory adjustment in the rate cap. With the latest 70 mi / h speed limits for passenger cars, 60 mi / h for trucks and 50 mi / h for school buses, this rural highway has changed traffic flow. These rural roads are now used by trucks at higher speeds (55 mph) for shorter distance travel. This rise in the number of vehicles and the speed limit contributes to potentially unsafe passing movements by drivers. West Texas' flat land is also a cause for this. Availability, accessibility and protection in existing two-lane highways are now increasingly required.

Four way streets are one way to tackle this problem. The cost of construction, though, is not commercially sustainable, at $1.0 to 2.0 million a mile. This is why the term "Mega Two" is supplied with a median to alternately provide passing devices. Access to this median is regulated by the traffic flow. The Super Two definition is not exactly new. Many roads satisfy two criteria, such as two-street motorways, and have been designed as either a first or a final product. These Super Two models are generally treated only as intermediate measures to total four-lane highways. Four of the major characteristics of the Super Two include full-size lanes, full-size shoulders, regular passage points and heavy use of right-hand turning lanes, left-hand turns and persistent left-hand turns. The Super Two then provides a four-lane highway with low development costs.

Design Philosophy

In the conventional double paths, the philosophy of Super Two is to have seamless movement and redesign. Where a two-lane highway is installed, the Super Two will be fitted with a four-lane route. The Super Two will be typical for small arterial and major volume arterials when designing a regional road scheme.

Design Speed

If an existing two-lane highway is upgraded to Super Two, the construction limit for Super Two should be between 80 and 110 km / h. The design speed of 100 to 110 km / h (Minnesota DOT) can be used in both new construction and restoration phases. In both situations, the builder should apply the speed which is higher or at least equal to the speed suggested when improving the current route. The 2000 ADT value is known as the main ADT for two to four highways. In a report published in Transportation Research Record 1303, "Warrants for Moving Lanes" revealed a desirable benefit / cost ratio of 6500 ADT on rural two-lane highways. The longitudinal lane of the project depends on the number of vehicles per hour (vph). The ideal length for the passageways is 0.8-1.6 km (Minnesota DOT) to minimise platoonings. The following is a general guideline for developing the concept length.

The distance design of a lane depends on the frequency of the traffic. This space will range from 16 to 24 km for a vph less than 700. This distance can range between 5 and 8 km or much higher with a vph of 700 or higher. The three-lane segment consists of an additional lane in the centre that provides passageways in opposite directions. Depending on the case, this shift in direction of the centre may be continuous or traffic triggered. The lane in the middle attached to the two-lane segment has the same or slightly different width. In German, Canada , Mexico, Turkey and other countries in the world, the shoulders of a three-wheel section can be smaller than the two-wheel section. The following is a short overview of the cross sections of German, Canadian and Mexico.

The highway in Germany has two lanes of 3.75 m and one lane of 3.5 m. The medium lane with a width of 3.75 m is built to make it possible to travel in alternative directions. Each curve is 0,25 m wide and the road is 12.0 m wide. This specification is appropriate for an ADT under 2000. In the opposite lane overtaking is prohibited.

Researchers also emphasised the rising need for double-lane highways with greater capacities, accessibility, and stability. In the other hand, the opening of new corridors for handling massive traffic volumes is of considerable concern with insufficient funding and environmental concerns. This has lately brought further focus to the definition of Super Two. Rural highways have more than 3 million miles in the US, comprising about 97% of the rural grid and 80% of U.S. routes. The rural two-lane grid reports that about 68% of rural transport and 30% of all journeys are made in the USA.

Reducing delays and injuries are the great advantages of a passing line. The cost savings for drivers on a variety of traffic levels and the building and repair costs for driving routes need to be compared in order to determine the efficacy of driving routes. The delay elimination by the transit path contributes to maintenance cost savings for road users. A unit time value typically expressed in dollars per hour of the traveller is compounded by the amount of time saved to measure the savings of time. In addition, the travel valuation is subject to travel reasons, travelers' income levels, and the amount of time savings per voyage, in addition to the need to update certain prices to current price levels.

There are two essential purposes on two-lane rural highways. Firstly, the delay can be minimised at particular bottlenecks, such as high upgrades or sites where vehicles mostly pass over rural lands. The second primary concept is to increase the overall transportation activities on two-lane highways by splitting off the road plataforms and reducing congestion due to limited traffic opportunities over large road distances. Many configurations of moving roads include construction alternatives assessed for Super Two highways. These alternatives can be categorised according to lane layouts in four groups. The following statistics define these groups.

Form B is the most frequent pattern for crossing the two-lane rural highways. This is ideal in both directions for road parts that have equal ADTs. The individual designs are mostly used in pairs, and one in each direction on a two-lane highway at regular intervals. It is prohibited to cross opposite direction vehicles where head-to-head or tail-to-tail sections are used. Before the final judgement the risks of building new passageways should be taken into account. The exterior sheathing is handled in various way in head-to - head and tail-to-tail sections. The configuration of the head-to-head is preferable because the drop region of the opposite passageways is not parallel to each other.

Super Two 's idea is a successful solution to addressing the issue after an evaluation of road features. This type of road with additional passageways could provide an inexpensive means of improving the quality of operation on two roads. In addition, crossing lanes will increase safety on two-lane highways, but injuries have also been reported. However, a detailed study of the roads is necessary before the design process to equate savings to building and repair costs. In order for a sound analysis to be carried out, field data should be related to expose the characteristics of a certain lane. Taking both delays and crash saves into account, Super Two is a permanent option or a transitional design between two-lane roads and four-lane highways.

Congestion Control

Traffic congestion on metropolitan roads in particular at peak hours is a significant problem for the engineers of traffic. This congestion allows queues to form on and off highway ramps at signalised and non-signalized intersections as well as on arterials where moving queues are likely. The intensity of traffic on rural roads is much less usual than on urban roads. Queue forming on rural highways is already witnessed. The key explanations for this event are that slow-moving cars stop fast moving cars at the desired speed. That is the case of a truck leading a peloton of passenger cars. To better evaluate the consequences of queuing, it is important to know the mechanisms that contribute to queues and resulting disruptions on roads. The theory of queuing involves mathematical algorithms that explain the mechanisms that generate queues, enabling a thorough study of the effects of queues.

ADT estimates from the Texas traffic map measure the arrival time. A section for the measurement of the delayed period is considered on this diagram. This portion is situated in Dallam County in Northeast Texas on Highway 87. On this route, the ADT includes between 2400 and 3600 vehicles. The 30th highest hourly volume of the year is around 15 percent of ADT on rural routes which have average variations in traffic. Then the actual volume of traffic time is 15% of the ADT. The arrival rate is thus determined by using the maximum hourly traffic volume with a directives 0.60 and an improvement of 50 vehicles per hour. The statistic indicates the number of cars and trucks on the lane. In the other hand, the principle of queuing is modelled on the premise that vehicles are servers and cars are supplied.

Sources for Floraville Bypass Report

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Sandhyavitri, A., Talha, I., Fauzi, M., & Sutikno, S. (2017). Managing construction risks of the toll road project in Indonesia. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology7(5), 1934.

Aziz, R. F., & Abdel-Hakam, A. A. (2016). Exploring delay causes of road construction projects in Egypt. Alexandria Engineering Journal55(2), 1515-1539.

Waty, M., Alisjahbana, S. W., Gondokusumo, O., Sulistio, H., Hasyim, C., Setiawan, M. I., ... & Ahmar, A. S. (2018). Modelling of waste material costs on road construction projects.

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