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Indigenous Australians, that comprises both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, are referred to in this context as the target group. These distinctive cultural groups are the original stewards of Australia and have a strong connection to the land. They are an incredibly diverse and culturally rich group with distinctive languages, customs, and history. The report analyses the idea of "The Voice to Parliament" as a viable means of addressing these concerns with a focus on understanding the difficulties and problems encountered by Indigenous Australians (Smith, 2016).

Historical and Ongoing Challenges

The Native Australians have been faced with a number of challenges that have been social, economic, and political in nature, over the course of time, some of which have affected their ability to enjoy a number of facilities that are intended for them to enjoy as the test of their Australian counterparts. As a result, this has led to most of the Native Australians to live a substandard life, with little to no social services, suffer injustices and prejudices as well as exclusion and under representation and also financial constraints (Butler et. al., 2019).

Health Disparities

Native Australians have noticeably worse health outcomes than non-Native Australians. These differences are frequently correlated with socioeconomic conditions, restricted likelihood of having healthcare services, and a lack of cultural awareness in the provision of healthcare. Culturally sensitive healthcare services are crucial since historical injustices have been contributing to these health disparities (Griffiths et. al., 2019).

Educational and Employment Inequities

Uneven distribution of work prospects and income is a result of Indigenous Australians' lower rates of secondary and university education completion. This achievement gap necessitates specialised educational approaches that acknowledge and capitalise on cultural assets since it feeds cycles of disadvantage (Butler et. al., 2019).

Preservation of Land and Culture

The loss of both land and cultural assets as a result of colonization and dispossession has resulted in identity issues and the disappearance of traditional knowledge. Attempts to reclaim and conserve cultural sites help to heal and build cultural identity. Land bears enormous cultural value (Griffiths et. al., 2019).

Limited Opportunities for Education and Employment

The persistent gaps in work prospects and income among Indigenous Australians are a result of lower rates of secondary and higher education. Because of the education divide, Indigenous communities' ability to progress economically and socially is hampered (Dudgeon et. al., 2010).


Homelessness affects Indigenous Australians more than the general population. Significant obstacles to obtaining possibilities for education and work are created by the lack of permanent housing. For people and families to be able to change their situation, addressing homelessness is essential (Griffiths et. al., 2019).

Mental Illness

Indigenous cultures frequently experience mental health difficulties, which are frequently caused by past trauma and current societal problems. To address the mental health needs of both people and families, access to treatment for mental illness and culturally competent support are essential (Hefferman et. al., 2012).

Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which can cause cognitive and behavioural difficulties in affected people. Communities and parents are key players in prevention and assistance. The social and academic development of children might be hampered by a lack of understanding and support for FASD (Hamilton et. al., 2021).

High Suicide Rates

In some Indigenous communities, there is a serious problem with high suicide rates. A comprehensive strategy is needed to address this problem, one that involves community participation, mental health care, and opportunities for people to assume roles and responsibilities within their communities, generating a feeling of purpose and belonging (Hefferman et. al., 2012).

Health Inequities

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia experience severe health inequities, including higher incidence of chronic illnesses like diabetes, heart disease, and respiratory conditions. Indigenous people's poor health has wider repercussions than just how they feel physically. Within Indigenous communities, it may have a negative impact on death rates, life expectancy, and quality of life. The cycle of deprivation is further exacerbated, and it strains healthcare resources (Griffiths et. al., 2019).

Addressing the Education and Employment Gap

The rates of postsecondary education and high school graduation among indigenous Australians are lower. Their likelihood of obtaining employment prospects is restricted by this education disparity, which therefore prevents economic growth. This gap is a result of a number of factors, including limited school funding, culturally insensitive curricula, and socioeconomic difficulties. The lack of access to high-quality education feeds the cycle of poverty and disadvantage. Indigenous Australians experience greater unemployment rates and poorer income levels as a result. People find it difficult to overcome socioeconomic limitations and enhance their general well-being as a result (Dudgeon et. al., 2010).

Homelessness and Its Impact

The stability of Indigenous Australian families is disturbed by homelessness, which has an impact on healthcare, employment, and education. Individuals become vulnerable and insecure as a result, which has a detrimental impact on mental health and life pleasure. It is challenging to address other problems due to a lack of permanent housing, which exacerbates difficulties (Griffiths et. al., 2019).

Impact of FASD

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes FASD, which can cause cognitive and behavioural difficulties in people. Although resources and information can be insufficient, prevention and assistance are essential. FASD can affect a child's academic and human growth, making it harder for them to succeed in school and in the workforce later in life. Families and educators frequently struggle to give the required assistance (Hamilton et. al., 2021).

High Suicide Rates and Their Impact

High suicide rates in some Indigenous communities, especially among young people, are a reflection of deep sorrow and a lack of options. Suicide is a devastating result of ongoing difficulties. It destroys families and communities and represents the extreme desperation that many Indigenous people may feel. It emphasizes the pressing requirement for extensive support and action (Hefferman et. al., 2012).


Health disparities, restricted educational opportunities, homelessness, domestic violence, mental illness, foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), and high suicide rates are only some of the problems that Indigenous Australians experience. These problems affect their health, future employment opportunities, family relationships, and cycle of disadvantaged living. In order to address these problems, improvements must be made in the areas of healthcare, education, and employment as well as in the fight against domestic violence and homelessness. High suicide rates can be fought by fostering a sense of duty and connection in Indigenous communities. Indigenous communities, governmental organisations, aid groups, and society as a whole may work together to create a future for Indigenous Australians that is more inclusive and egalitarian.


Butler, T. L., Anderson, K., Garvey, G., Cunningham, J., Ratcliffe, J., Tong, A., ... & Howard, K. (2019). Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander people's domains of wellbeing: a comprehensive literature review. Social science & medicine, 233, 138-157.

Dudgeon, P., Wright, M., Paradies, Y., Garvey, D., & Walker, I. (2010). The social, cultural and historical context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice, 25-42.

Griffiths, K., Coleman, C., Al-Yaman, F., Cunningham, J., Garvey, G., Whop, L., ... & Madden, R. (2019). The identification of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in official statistics and other data: Critical issues of international significance. Statistical Journal of the IAOS, 35(1), 91-106.

Hamilton, S., Doyle, M., & Bower, C. (2021). Review of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin, 2(1), 1.

Heffernan, E. B., Andersen, K. C., Dev, A., & Kinner, S. (2012). Prevalence of mental illness among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Queensland prisons. Medical Journal of Australia, 197(1), 37-41.

Smith, L. T. (2016). Decolonising methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples (3rd ed.). Zed Books.

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